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1869, Yep Zun - Unfit For Publication
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Depositions for Yep Zun 26 Apr 1869 Bathurst trial 1

1

    Before John Haughton Langston Scott, Esquire, Police Magistrate at Tambaroora 7th January 1869 Yep Zun alias Eck June alias Captain Cook (sodomy) Mark Edward Dyett Ford being duly sworn states:

    I am a Senior Constable in the New South Wales Police Force Stationed and in charge of Tambaroora in the Colony of New South Wales – On the 29th of December 1868 from information I received from Charlie Lawson – a chinaman – the father of the prosecutor – I proceeded to the hut of the prisoner Yep Zun at Tambaroora and found him there and brought him to the Police Office – I sent for an interpreter and then charged him with sodomy – (committing an unnatural offence on the body of Thompson Lawson – who is a boy of about 9 years old)

2

prisoner through the interpreter said he never did it – previous to this he had got the father to strip the boy in my presence – I then saw marks of violence around the fundament – I thereupon took the prisoner now before the Court into custody – prisoner called the prosecutor on his way to the lockup “Bloody young bugger” prisoner does not bear a good character – he had no licence for the goldfields or certificate upon him.
[Signed] MED Ford.

Sworn before me, Tambaroora, 7th January 1869.
[Signed] JHL Scott, Police Magistrate. 

    Thompson Lawson, being duly sworn, states: I am the son of Charlie Lawson and live with my father at Tambaroora. I have known the prisoner now before the court for some time – last Sunday fortnight I ran away from my father and went to the prisoner’s hut – prisoner asked me to go and live with him and said my father and mother would kill me if I went home.

3

I went and stayed at prisoner’s hut one week – prisoner offered to give me plenty to eat and plenty to buy lollies if I would steal for him – whilst at prisoner’s place I always slept in his bed with him – 8 nights altogether – whilst sleeping with him he rubbed his fat cock up my backside he did so the first night I went there and each night afterwards – last Monday week my father sent a boy – Charlie Austin – to prisoner’s place to fetch me home – he took me home – I did not go before because I was afraid to do so – prisoner told me father would kill me – at dinner time on last Monday week I told my father that prisoner had rubbed his cock up my backside – and that when the prisoner did it I cried – I cried because it was too sore – it hurt me in my belly – On the next day Tuesday 29th December my father brought me up to the Police and I told them about this.
[Signed] Thompson (his X mark) Lawson.

Sworn before me at Tambaroora 7th January 1869.
[Signed] JHL Scott, PM.

4

    And Henry Fischer being duly sworn states: I am a Medical Practitioner and reside near Tambaroora. On the 29th of December 1868 I was summoned by Senior Constable Ford to examine the prosecutor – Thompson Lawson – I did so at the Court House at Tambaroora.

    I found that an unnatural offence had been recently committed upon his person. There was no doubt in my mind about it – I found the ring muscle of the fundament so much weakened that it could be opened without any force – also great soreness and delicacy about the abdomen – also bruises and discolouration around the anus – I cannot say whether this act was done by force or not – the first penetration would in any case require force – I have since attended this boy and given him medicine suitable to the case – I should say that the offence was not a week old – the act must have been committed within that time – the boy is now well – not in any danger.
[Signed] Henry Fischer.

Sworn before me at Tambaroora 7th January 1869.
[Signed] JHL Scott, PM.

5

    Yuck Choi being duly sworn after the manner of his country states: I am a miner and reside at Tambaroora – I know the prisoner now before the court also the prosecutor – on a Sunday about a fortnight ago – two Sundays before the last one as I was going into the bush near Newman’s Flat at Tambaroora to fetch some wood I heard some noise of voices – I saw prisoner and prosecutor lying down together in the bush near – prisoner was lying on the top of prosecutor – I then made a noise with my tomahawk and they ran away. Prosecutor was pulling up his trousers. Yuck Choi His Name. Sworn before me at Tambaroora 7th January 1869.
[Signed] JHL Scott, PM.

    Charlie Lawson alias Law Sui, being duly sworn states: I’m a Miner and reside at Tambaroora. The prosecutor

6

is my son – he is 9 years of age – I know the prisoner for many years – my son left my house on Sunday 20th December – he went to prisoner’s hut – I went for him myself there – as soon as he saw me he ran away – I could not catch him – on the 28th December my son was brought home by a boy I had sent for him – I then tied him up – he said Captain Cook – the prisoner – tell him if he come home I would kill him – that prisoner had put his cock into his backside – I then examined my son – I found marks about his ass hole – I went next day and informed the Police. [Signed] Charlie Law Sou [Chinese marks] (His Name).

Sworn before me at Tambaroora 7th January 1869.
[Signed] JHL Scott, Police Magistrate.

    Adjourned for further evidence for the defence to 21st January 1869.
[Signed] JHL Scott, PM.

7

Statement of the Accused.

New South Wales, Tambaroora
TO WIT.                                    }

    Yep Zun alias Captain Cook stands charged before the undersigned, one of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace in and for the Colony aforesaid, this 7th and 21st Day of January in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty nine for that he, the said Yep Zun alias Captain Cook on or about the 20th day of December 1868 at Tambaroora in the said Colony, committed an unnatural offence on the boy of one Thompson Law Son, and the said charge being read to the said Yep Zun alias Captain Cook and the witness for the prosecution Mark ED [Edward Dyett] Ford, Thompson Lawson – Henry Fischer – Yuck Choi and Charlie Lawson being severally examined in his presence, the said Yep Zun is now addressed by me as follows: “Having heard the evidence, do you wish to say anything in answer to the charge? You are not obliged to say anything unless you desire to do so; but whatever you say will be taken down in writing, and may be given in evidence against you upon your trial;” whereupon the said Yep Zun alias Captain Cook, says as follows: “I did not do anything to the boy – I went to tell his father to fetch the boy home – he would not come for him.”

Taken before me at Tambaroora 21st January 1869.
[Signed] JHL Scott, PM.

    Yep Zun alias Captain Cook adjourned from the 7th day to 21st January (sodomy) statement. No witnesses appearing for prisoner’s defence, he is hereby committed to taking his trail at the next sitting of the Circuit Court of assize to be holden at Bathurst on 26th April 1869.
[Signed] JHL Scott PM.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Justice P Faucett’s Notebook 2

88

[Bathurst, 26 April 1869]

Queen

 

v.

 

Yep Zun

Thompson Lawson

 

 



Fullerton for prisoner
(Interpreter sworn)

    Mark Edward Dyett Ford. Constable at Tambaroora. I arrested prisoner on 29 September last. I received some information from a chinaman named Charley Lawson – father of the boy.

    William (Okeen ?) (chinaman). I remember when prisoner was arrested. I was employed by the constable on that occasion to interpret between him and the prisoner. Prisoner understood what was said. I interpreted faithfully. I told him constable said he arrested him for doing something bad to the boy. The boy’s name was mentioned. Charley Lawson and the boy were there at the same time.

    Cross-examined by Fullerton. Constable said he took prisoner in charge for (spoiling ?) the boy and making (him ? his ?) (some ? dicky ?) thing. I can’t say the exact words.

    Constable Ford. Charley Lawson and his son were with me. I got the chinaman to interpret. I told him I charged him with sodomy – an unnatural offence on the body of Thompson Lawson.

89

Interpreter not long present. I told the father to (strap ?) the boy. This was previous to the arrest.
The boy (strapped ?). I saw marks round the fundament – blue and dark for about ¾ inch round.
Discolouration apparently produced by violence.
On the road to lockup prisoner called the boy in English a b----- young b-----.

    Cross-examined by Fullerton. I never studied medicine. I can’t tell how these marks were caused.

    Thomas Lawson (a young chinaman).

(Questioned by me & Mr Fullerton and he appears to me to be a competent witness).

I know the prisoner and was at his place on a Sunday in Christmas (week ? back ?).
    I went to look for a goat & he called me. He told me my father & mother would kill me if I went home. He said to stop with him.
I went with him to his house. This was on Sunday about dinner time.
I stopt that night with him – slept in the same bed with him.
I staid there a week. Slept in the same bed with him all the time.

90

While there he did something to me.
He put his cock on my back – in my back – in my backside – arse.
He put it in.
He hurt me.
More than once – six times. He did it the first night I went.
He did it also in the bush – twice.
In the bush I once saw a chinaman passing, Ah (Tuke ? passim) (produced). I knew Ah Tuke before.
I went home.
I felt sore afterwards. A doctor afterwards saw me. I felt it inside – far inside. I felt no pain any where else.

    Cross-examined by Fullerton. I knew it was wrong. I told Mr Ford first.

    I had seen my father before I told Mr Ford. I told my father on a Sunday – one Sunday afternoon – the day I went home.
My father did not come for me & take me home.
I stopt with him because he would not let me go.
He tied me up – with a rope – to a stick – by his house.
He did not always tie me when he did it. He tied me on Monday morning. Let me loose on Saturday.
He let me go on Friday. That was the only time he untied me.
I was never let go only on Friday.

91

I am quite sure he never untied me till Friday, neither day nor night.
I was tied outside from Monday until Friday.
    A good many people living about there – some of them saw me tied. Long (Quaw ? passim) saw me. Nobody else passed by.
    A good many people living close to prisoner’s. No one came to untie me. Long Quaw knows me. I did not tell him prisoner tied me.
I never told anyone I was tied.
My father had not beat me very much.
I did not think they would kill me if I went home.
He did it every night – in bed.
    I was tied up a yard from the house. A long rope. Tied by my leg – not my hands. In front of the house – near door. I could not undo the rope.
I did not tell before that I was tied up because I did not know.
I did not go home because I was tied up.
My father never spoke to me about coming (here ?).
    No other person ever did it to me. He never spoke to me about the prisoner. He told me the prisoner did it (to ?) (me ?).
    He told me to say so here. He did not tell me to say I did it before I told him. He told me the day I went home that prisoner did it – about an hour after.
I went home at dinner time. I told my father first on Monday – the day after I went home.
I have known prisoner a good while.
Father & prisoner don’t speak – not friends for a good while.

92

There was something (about ? concerning ?) the Police Court between them. I have heard say he would punish the prisoner – that he would get him in the lockup. He said so the day I went home – not before.

I did not feel (person ?) anywhere else.

    By (Brother ?). Father & I went together to the constable. I told him before that. I went home on a Sunday. Next day I told my father.

    On Tuesday I went to constable. I don’t remember a little boy coming for me. He did not come. I was not tied when I was sleeping with prisoner – nor when in the (house ?). A mile in the bush.

    Charley Lawson (chinaman). Little boy is my son. I live 500 yards from prisoner. My son was away for 8 days. I knew he was at prisoner’s. I did not see him there. I went about twice to look for the boy. I used to send my brother for him. I gave a schoolboy money to bring him home. He brought him home on Sunday 28 September. I chained him up. I did not remark that he was suffering. He did not complain. I took him to the constable next day. The evening of the day he came home he complained to me.

    By interpreter. I stript the boy and examined him – in the evening of Monday.

93

  The boy told me before I stript him. I compared him with his brother to see if it was all the same. He was different from his brother. It was too big – (?) mark. Next morning the doctor saw him. He was in the same state. The brother is older.

    Cross-examined by Fullerton. Boy came home on Sunday. Schoolboy brought him.

He told me in the evening. He told me – (?). I did not ask him if he did.
Prisoner is called Captain Cook.
The constable brought the doctor. I know prisoner about 10 years. Not a great friend of mine.
No work at Police Court.
I am a married man. I went to prisoner’s house to look for the boy – did not see him.
Bark house – two rooms. Did not see a stick at door nor a rope.
I went to the hut on Sunday night & Monday.
When his brother went for him the boy ran out of the house – ran away.
I know Long Quaw. Plenty of people living about – on the main road.
(Yut Choi ? passim) is here – not a friend of mine. He lives at other side of gully altogether.

    Yut Choi told me he saw Captain Cook taking the boy into the bush. I said I should get the boy home before I believed him. It was on Monday he came home.

94

He goes to Sunday School.

    Yut Choi (sworn by candle). (Two interpreters). I am a miner.

I know prisoner – and the boy.
I was going to chop wood & saw them.
Heard noises and saw the prisoner & boy. Saw boy with trousers off and prisoner on boy.
Chopped wood – made a noise and little boy ran away. Prisoner had hold of his trousers and put back on. After that I told boy’s father. 

    Cross-examined by Fullerton. That was same day after Christmas – the Sunday. He did not [tell] the policeman the boy had his trousers down. I told the boy’s father. He did not say so at the Court because (he ?) (does ?) not understand English.

He did say the boy had his trousers down at Police Court – but not the policeman.

    Present man interpreting. It was about dinner time. He & I are good friends. Heard two men’s voices. Afterwards he saw prisoner & the boy – no one else.

    Henry Fisher. Medical Practitioner at Tambaroora.

I was called by police on 29 December last – & examined the boy at Police Office.
His abdomen was very hard and it was sore – he gave way – drew back.

95

I then examined the anus and the ring by a slight pressure opened for about an inch inside.
I found several marks outside – showing that some unnatural act had taken place.

    I found several marks round – on each side – as if of fingers – not quite fresh – as if done before the weakness set in.

    Ring – was larger than natural in a boy of that size. Something had got inside to cause the weakness. That did take place. Something went in. It was my opinion that an unnatural offence took place. That would cause a soreness of the abdomen – by causing an affect on the abdomen.

I treated the boy – and after some time the ring contracted.

    Cross-examined by Fullerton. Qualified at home – not here. I was asked to examine for the purpose of discovering if that took place. I don’t know of any disease that would cause this. Inflammation (if ?) (extended ?). Might have been done several days before.

Case for Crown.

Verdict Guilty 

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Alexander Forbes letter, 14 May 1869 3

Sheriff’s Office, Prison Branch, 17/5[/1869] 1869/1310. Respecting interpreter for Yep Zun condemned.

69/3825

Alexander Forbes, Bathurst gaoler’s letter. Photo: Peter de Waal
Alexander Forbes, Bathurst gaoler’s letter. Photo: Peter de Waal

Alexander Forbes 
Bathurst Gaol
14 May 

Harold Maclean, Sheriff, Sydney

    4 The R[oman] C[atholic] Clergyman is especially desirous of securing the services of an interpreter while attending Yep Zun, under sentence of death. I have procured the attendance of Ah See, the only interpreter obtainable in Bathurst, he is a Wesleyan, his charge is 10/- per day, and he will attend when required at that charge trusting to the government paying him, but I have not guaranteed him anything, and he will discontinue his services if he is not paid – The Clergyman, is anxious if possible that an interpreter who is a Roman Catholic should be engaged, but there is not one nearer than Sofala – 30 miles distant. Ah See says he thinks that the interpreter there Low Chong (a Roman Catholic) might be induced to attend, on payment of 15/- per day and his fare to & fro Sofala but not for less, as his charge there when engaged interpreting is £1.0.0 per day. Will you be good enough to instruct me at your earliest convenience in this matter.

  I have the honor to be,
    Sir,
  Your most obedient Servant.
[Signed] A Forbes, Gaoler.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

NSW Executive Council Minute, 26 May 1869 5

Minute No. 21

At Government House
Sydney, 26th May 1869

Present
    His Excellency the Governor [the Right Hon Somerset Richard, Earl of Belmore] 
    The Hon the Colonial Secretary [the Hon John Robertson] 
    The Hon the Secretary for Lands [the Hon William Forster] 
    The Hon the Secretary for Works [the Hon John Sutherland] 
    The Hon the Postmaster General [the Hon Daniel Egan] 
    The Hon the Solicitor General [the Hon Joshua Frey Josephson] and
    The Hon Robert Owen [MLC]

    The Council having met pursuant to Summons, the Minutes of proceedings on the 17th inst, are read and Confirmed.

    His Excellency the Governor lays before the Council the Reports of His Honor Mr Justice Fawcett, of the following Capital convictions at the late Bathurst Assizes, viz:–

    (2) Yip Sung [aka Yep Zun], a chinaman, for an unnatural offence, committed on a Boy between 8 and 10 years of age.

    His Honor being in attendance is introduced, and the Reports having been read in his presence, he affords the Council such further information as they consider necessary, and withdraws.

    After the most earnest deliberation the Council arrive at the following conclusion which they advise should be adopted, viz:–

    In the case of Yip Sung that the Capital sentence be commuted to Penal servitude with hard labour for the period of fifteen (15) years on the Roads or other Public Works of the colony.

Clerk of the Council
Alexander Campbell Budge

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

NSW Executive Council Minute, 1 Jun 1869 6

    7 Summary of the Proceedings of the Executive Council on the 26th May 1869, with reference to the Capital conviction of “Yip Sung”, a chinaman.–

    Minute 69/21.

    His Excellency the Governor, having laid before the Council, the Report of His Hon Mr Justice Fawcett, of the capital conviction of “Yip Sung”, a chinaman of the late Bathurst assizes, for an unnatural offence. The Council advises, after the most Earnest deliberation, that the Capital sentence be commuted to Penal Servitude for the period of fifteen (15) years, with hard labour on the Roads or other Public Works of the Colony.
[Signed] Alexander Campbell Budge, Clerk of the Council.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

George Foster Wise, A/Sheriff’s letter, 3 Jun 1869 8

69/4191
Ref 69/1451.

The Sheriff respecting commutation of sentence of Yip Sung

Sheriffs Office,
Prison Branch,
Sydney 3rd June 1869

Henry Halloran JP, Principal Under Secretary

Sir,
    I do myself the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 1st June No. 187 notifying the decision of the Executive Council in the case of Yip Sung and to inform you that the prisoner has been apprised accordingly.

    I have the honor to be,
       Sir,
    Your obedient Servant.
[Signed] George Foster Wise, A/Sheriff.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Alexander Forbes letter, 4 Jun 1869 9

69/4346; 69/1496; 69/1310

Alexander Forbes 
Bathurst Gaoler
4 June

Harold Maclean, Sheriff, Sydney

Sir,

Respecting pay of chinese interpreter

    10 In reference to my letter to you of the 14th ulto regarding the attendance of an interpreter with the RC Chaplain on Yep Zun (while under the sentence of death.) I have the honor to inform you that Ah See has attended on 15 separate occasions. Will you see good enough to instruct me if a Voucher is to be forwarded for the amount of his charges.

    I have the honor to be,
       Sir,
    Your most obedient Servant.
[Signed] A Forbes.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

69/4191; 69/1451

The Sheriff respecting payment of chinese interpreter employed at Bathurst Gaol

George Foster Wise
Sheriffs Office, Prison Branch,
Sydney 24th June 1869

Henry Halloran JP, Principal Under Secretary

Sir,
    In reply to your BC [?] communication of the 12th Instant on the papers returned herewith. I have the honor to state that the interpreter attended at his own risk having been told that no payment would be guaranteed.

    The scale fixed by the Law Department for interpreters is five shillings (5/-) per (?) if engaged for less than two hours, and as this man was not engaged for more than one hour on each occasion, I beg to recommend that the sum of five shillings (5/-) for each visit be allowed to be charged to the vote for “unforseen expenses” Gaols generally

    I have the honor to be,
       Sir,
    Your obedient Servant.
[Signed] GF Wise.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, Thu 6 May 1869 11

    At the Bathurst assizes on the 28th ult, Yip Sway, a Chinese, was indicted for the commission of an unnatural offence. The case rested mainly upon Chinese evidence, and there was much difficulty about the interpretation; but he was convicted and sentenced to death.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Goulburn Herald and Chronicle, Sat 8 May 1869 12

CRIME IN THE WESTERN DISTRICT.
(FROM THE BATHURST TIMES.)

THE calendar of crime at the present assizes presents a dark and gloomy picture of the state of morality that surrounds us. We may pride ourselves upon oh advance of civilisation in our towns—our churches, schools, hospitals, school of arts, and kindred associations; but in the bush which surrounds them there is much to put us to shame. When we glance down the list of cases tried and for trial, that which most painfully strikes us is the serious character of the indictments; and further, that what few cases of a trivial nature there are come from the towns, whilst the deeper crimes come from the bush, or from communities of such ephemeral existence that they cannot properly be defined as settled. There are, so to speak, two phases of crime—one peculiar to the towns, the other peculiar to the bush, and the latter is invariably the darker and more deplorable. The Bathurst assizes are by no means entitled to stand alone in this bad pre-eminence, for the calendars of other circuit courts offer precisely the same testimony; but it is necessary that philanthropists and legislators should realise the fact, as a grave social problem, in order to assist them in applying measures of remedy or reform. In the session before last, parliament endeavoured to deal with the subject, and a crop of social reform acts was the result—very praiseworthy of their kind, but calculated to deal with effects instead of dealing with causes. There were to be workhouses, industrial schools, and a training-ship for the reformation of those already trained to vice and crime; but no provisions was made to cope with the difficulty at an earlier stage. We admit we do not see clearly how the difficulty is to be grappled with; but we are nevertheless convinced that it is the duty of our leading men to seek a solution of the problem. The contrast presented by the superior social condition, intelligence, and self-respect of those who live in towns, over those who dwell in the bush (we speak of the labouring classes) is shown as vividly in the witness-box as in the criminal-dock; and we have therefore brought home to us the conviction that the cause of all the evil is the absence of religious and secular education amongst those who live in isolation, beyond the pale of civilizing influences which are to be found in settled communities. We have had, in three or four cases tried this week, a state of depravity revealed that appals the oral sense—cases which it is sickening to refer to ,and utterly imposcible [sic] to lay before the public; and this last is their worst feature, because from the silence which is rendered compulsory a cloak is thrown round the vilest deeds of wickedness and immorality, and society thus remains, for the most part, in ignorance of horrors that disgrace every feeling of humanity, and which call aloud for repression. When we see in our cities and towns the many edifices devoted to religion and education and reflect that scarcely any aids to moral culture exist in the bush—when we see so much public money devoted to the embellishment of the metropolis and some of our inland towns, and consider the state of mental destitution in which so many of our fellow-colonists are steeped—there is something shocking in the selfishness which closes its eyes to the helpless condition of our poorer fellow-workers, something which after all suggests the existence of a Brummagem king of civilisation—gilded on the surface and fair to the eye, but false at the core. We shall be told that it is easy to find fault, but not so easy to suggest a remedy; and there is a class of persons who consider that no abuse should be attacked unless those who attack are prepared with a scheme of amendment. With such fatuity we can bandy no argument. It is the duty of whose who discover the existence of a wrong to expose it. The means by which it may be repaired and avoided may well be left to after deliberation and the operation of mature counsel. W say that the neglected condition of our bush population is a disgrace to the colony, and a curse which rebounds upon society in moral pollution through every gaol and penal establishment. We admit all the difficulties that surround the case; but we contend that as a people we ought not to sit down under them wringing our hands in despair. Our duty is to seek a remedy, and we can only find one by inviting discussion and using earnestness to aid us in the discovery.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Illustrated Sydney News, Thu 13 May 1869 13

RETROSPECT.

    On the 23rd of April the Earl of Belmore returned from his trip to the Maitland Agricultural Show by the steamer Coonanbara, and was landed at the Governor’s jetty, in Farm Cove.

    At the Bathurst Assizes, on 28th ult, Yip Sway, a Chinese, was indicted for the commission of an unnatural offence. The case rested mainly upon Chinese evidence, and there was much difficulty about the interpretation; but he was convicted and sentenced to death.

 


1    SRNSW: NRS880, [9/6524], Supreme Court, Papers and depositions, Bathurst, 1869, No. 318. Emphasis added.

2    SRNSW: NRS5927, [2/3899], Judiciary, P Faucett, J. Notebooks Circuit Courts, 1866-87, pp. 88-95. Emphasis added.

3    SRNSW: NRS905, [4/662] (69/3825), Col Sec, Letters received, 1826-1982. 

4    Mn: 17 May 1869

       The chinaman Yep-Zun is under sentence of death for the Crime of Sodomy.
       I have ascertained that he is quite ignorant of the English language, but he requested, through the chinese interpreter, that a Roman Catholic Clergyman should visit him.
       I do not consider myself authorised to incur the large expense of 15/ or 20/ per day for an unlimited period for the services of an interpreter (unless ?) with the sanction of The Honourable the Colonial Secretary as little amount to be paid per day has to this length of time that the services of the said interpreter on to beyond.
       Principal Superintendent, [initial illegible]

5    SRNSW: NRS4232, [4/1549], Executive Council, Minute books, Minute 21, 26 May 1869, pp. 291-2, R2447.

6    SRNSW: NRS909, [4/1072] (M16759), Col Sec, Minutes and Memoranda, 1826–1927.

7    App [approved ?] [initialled] (RB ?) [Richard Belmore, Governor ?], 31 May 1869. The Sheriff. Mr Justice Fawcett– 1 June 1869.

8    SRNSW: NRS905, [4/659] (69/4191) Col Sec, Letters received, 1826-1982.

9    SRNSW: NRS905, [4/662] (69/4346), Col Sec, Letters received, 1826-1982.

10   Mn: Referred with reference to the previous communications of 19th Inst to Principal Under Sec 8 (?) 69 [initialled]. Did the Sheriff authorize such attendance of interpreter?

11   The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser,  Thu 6 May 1869, p. 3.

12   The Goulburn Herald and Chronicle, Sat 8 May 1869, p. 3. Emphasis added.

13   Illustrated Sydney News, Thu 13 May 1869, p. 1.