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1877, George Primmer - Unfit For Publication
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Below also see: George Primmer, 1880,
George Primmer, 1885,
George Primmer, 1897
Primmer v. Primmer, 1907 – Divorce

 

The Western Independent, Thu 7 Mar 1878 1

QUARTER SESSIONS.
———◦———
TUESDAY, MARCH 5th, 1878.
(Before his Honor Mr District Court Judge Josephson.)

Crown Prosecutor, JT Teece, Esq, barrister-at-law; Judge’s Associate:—Fraser, Esq. The bar was represented by Mr Buchanan, Heydon, and Backhouse, Esqs.
    Solicitors present: Messrs Hellyer, West, Heydon, Morgan, McIntosh, Dodd.
    His Honor took his seat on the bench at 10 am.

ARRAIGNMENT OF PRISONERS.

HORSE STEALING.

    George Primmer pleaded not guilty to stealing a mare, the property of Mr Barton, at Green Flat, on 5th March.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Bathurst Times, Sat 9 Mar 1878 2

BATHURST QUARTER SESSIONS.
————

TUESDAY, MARCH 5, 1878.
(Before his Honour Mr District Judge Josephson)

HIS HONOUR took his seat this morning at 10 o’clock precisely.
    Barristers present: Mr Teece (Crown Prosecutor), Mr D Buchanan, Mr — Heydon, and Mr Alfred Backhouse.
    Attorneys: Mr JN McIntosh, Mr A West, Mr Morgan, Mr L Heydon, Mr T Hellyer, and Mr North of Carcoar.
    All the prisoners were arraigned,

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 6.

    His Honour took his seat shortly before 9 o’clock.

HORSE STEALING.

George Primmer, 1878. SRNSW: NRS1998 [3/5955], Photo: SRNSW
George Primmer, 1878.
SRNSW: NRS1998 [3/5955], Photo: SRNSW

    George Primer [sic] was charged with stealing, on 5th March, 1877, one horse, the property of George Henry Barton. 

    The prisoner pleaded not guilty, and was defended by Mr D Buchanan, instructed by Mr Hellyer.

    The Crown Prosecutor opened the case and called,

    Isaac Morrell, who stated: I arrested prisoner on 22nd February last, on the charge of stealing a horse, the property of George Henry Barton; prisoner said he owned the horse, and got him in the bush; the horse is now outside the Court.

    [George] Henry Barton deposed: I reside at Green Flat; I have seen a horse outside the Court; that horse was given to my son about two and a half years ago by Mr Hawkins; the horse was in my possession until nearly the end of 1876; I then lost the horse, but afterwards found him, and branded him MB; I lost him again for about 4 or 5 months; this was about a fortnight or three weeks before last Christmas; I afterwards saw prisoner in the beginning of 1876, and he asked me if I was sure the horse was mine; he, however, claimed him; I never disposed of the horse.

    Cross-examined by Mr Buchanan: When I got the horse he was a foal about 5 or 6 months old; he is a yellow bay, and he has no peculiar marks; he ran sometimes in my own paddock until he was 12 months old; from the time I lost him it might be five or six months before I saw the horse in possession of prisoner; I afterwards sent for prisoner; and asked him what was to be done about the horse; my reason for sending for the horse was that I thought prisoner might pull me for the horse; prisoner told me I had the best right to keep him; prisoner’s place is about 4½ miles from me; prisoner had sold this horse; I took possession of the horse before I sent for prisoner; I knew the horse well; he was unbroken when I lost him, but when I got him back he was broken; prisoner said he had broken him in and sold him.

    William Orchard said; I am a labourer and reside at Lithgow; some time in March I bought a horse from prisoner, to whom I gave 15s 6d and a whip, as the price of him; I afterwards saw prisoner at Lithgow, and told him Harry claimed the horse; he said “If Harry comes to you, give him the horse;” prisoner gave me a pound; the horse is now outside the Court.

    Cross-examined: I have seen the horse running at prisoner’s place openly for some time; I cannot say what prisoner said in reply to my remark about Harry claiming the horse.

    This closed the case for the prosecution.

    Mr Buchanan addressed the jury.

    His Honour summed up, and the jury retired, and returned a verdict of guilty.

    Remanded for sentence.

BATHURST QUARTER SESSIONS.
————
(Continued from our supplement.)

THURSDAY, MARCH 7, 1878.

SENTENCES.

    The following prisoners were then brought up for sentence:—

HORSE STEALING.

    George Primmer found guilty of the above offence, was sentenced to 12 months in Bathurst gaol.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Western Independent, Sat 9 Mar 1878 3

BATHURST QUARTER SESSIONS.
———◦———
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 6, 1878.

HORSE STEALING.

GEORGE PRIMMER was charged that he, on the 5th March, 1877, did steal one horse, the property of George Henry Barton.

    The prisoner pleaded not guilty, and was defended by Mr Buchanan, instructed by Mr TH Hellyer.

    The Crown Prosecutor opened the case, and called

    Isaac Morrow, [sic] who deposed: I am senior-constable; I arrested the prisoner on 22nd February, at Green Flats, at his residence, on the charge of stealing a horse; he made no reply to the charge; previous to arresting him, I asked him if he had sold a horse to William Morton; he said, “I did; I got it in the bush;” I asked him who owned it; he replied, “I do;” I then arrested him; the horse is now outside the court.

    George Henry Barton deposed: I am a labourer, residing at Rockfield, near Bowenfels; the prisoner’s place is about four miles and a half from mine; I have seen the horse outside the court; the horse was given to my son about 2½ years ago; I had the horse in my possession; it was branded about November, 1876, with the prisoner’s brand; when I found it branded, I put it in my yard, and sent word to prisoner, and he came on the following day; I told him I had a colt with his brand on; we looked at the colt; he said that was the one he branded; I sais I could prove the colt was mine, and he told me I had the best right to keep him; I had the colt in my possession 2 or 3 months, and branded it MP; I lost it again for four or five months, and about a fortnight before last Christmas I saw it with Mr Archer; I asked Mr Archer where he got it; I then saw the prisoner about the New Year, 1878, and asked him why he sold my horse to [William] Archer; he asked me if I was sure the horse was mine; I replied I was sure; he then offered me another horse instead of him, and I refused it; I had sole charge of the horse, and never sold him to the prisoner, or anyone else; the value of the horse was 30s.

    To Mr Buchanan: The horse is over 3 years old; when I got it, he was 5 or 6 months old; his run was about Lithgow Valley; I did not brand him, but knew him by his color; there are no peculiar marks; I have seen the horse thousands of times, and know him well; he ran for a while at Antonio’s Creek; I saw him after he was branded about half-a-mile from my place, feeding with other horses; I had no doubts about the horse being mine; the reason I had a talk with the prisoner was to see if he would give him up without going to law; I told prisoner I could prove the horse was mine; I had the horse two or three months, and branded him; I missed him the second time, and told the police; they never found him; the prisoner is married, and living with his family; I have known him 8 or 9 years; the prisoner and myself put the horse in my paddock; I took possession of the horse before the prisoner came; the horse, when I lost him, was unbroken, but broke in when I got him back; I never broke the horse in; the prisoner told me that he had broken in and sold the horse; and the reason he took him was that I had reported and gazetted him to the police.

    William Archer deposed: I live at Lithgow; the latter end of last year I bought a horse from the prisoner; it is now outside the court; I gave prisoner £1 all but 4s 6d—that is, 15s 6d.—and a whip; I then saw Barton; the prisoner I saw at Blackford’s public-house, at Lithgow; I told him that Harry claimed the horse, and meant to have him; the prisoner said, “If Harry claims the horse, he has the best right to him,” and, “If Harry comes to you, give him the horse;” he said he would give me £1.

    To Mr Buchanan: I saw the horse running at prisoner’s place for several months; anyone could see him; the horse was ridden a few times by the prisoner.

    This was the case for the Crown.

    Mr Buchanan addressed the jury.

    His Honor summed up, the jury retired, and returned into court, and found the prisoner guilty.

    Remanded for sentence.

————————
THURSDAY, MARCH 7, 1878.
His Honor took his seat on the bench at 9 am.

SENTENCES.

HORSE STEALING.

    George Primmer found guilty of the above, was sentenced to 12 months in Bathurst gaol.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

George Primmer, Gaol photo sheet 4 

SRNSW: NRS1998, [3/5955], Bathurst Gaol photographic description book, 22 Dec 1874-27 Jul 1880, No. 135, p. 128, R5084.

 


Gaol Photo Sheet - Transcribed Details

No. 135

Date when Portrait was taken: 4 April 1878

Prisoner's Name: George Primmer

Native place: Hartley

Year of birth: 1851

Arrived        Ship: n/a
in Colony }   Year: n/a

Trade or occupation
previous to conviction  } Labourer

Religion: C of E

Education, degree of: Nil

Colour of hair: Sandy

Colour of eyes: Brown

Height: 6' 0½"

Weight     On committal: 192
in lbs     }  On discharge: 

Marks or Special Features:  

Where and when tried: Bathurst Q.S.
6 March 1878

Offence: Horse stealing

Sentence: 12 mths, HL

Remarks:

 (No. of Previous Portrait ...  ) 

PREVIOUS CONVICTIONS

Where and When Offence. Sentence

Bathurst Q.S

Bathurst Q.S

  4

  6

  1

12

  7

12

1873

1880

1881

Grievous bodily harm

Larceny

To Bathurst Gaol

12 months, HL

3 years, HL

  


 

George Primmer, 1880 

 

The Sydney Morning Herald, Thu 10 Jun 1880 5

(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENTS.)
———

LITHGOW.

Wednesday.


    Shoplifting on an extensive scale has been going on for the past few weeks, and senior-constable Morrow has arrested a man named Primmer and a lad named Martin. Quantities of goods were found on the premises of the former, who is a notorious character.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Sydney Morning Herald, Fri 18 Jun 1880 6

(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENTS.)

LITHGOW.

                                                                                                                                         Thursday.

    The trial of Primmer and Martin, for shoplifting on an extensive scale, occupied two days, and resulted in Primmer being committed for trial on five charges and Martin on two. The former was also summarily convicted in one case and sentenced to six months’ imprisonment. The Court presented an extraordinary scene, as stolen goods were exhibited to the value of £80 or £100. Primmer confessed to the whole of the robberies.

 


 

George Primmer, 1885 

 

The Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal, Wed 28 Jan 1885 7

BATHURST QUARTER SESSIONS.
———◦———
TUESDAY, JANUARY 27, 1885
(Before His Honor Judge Docker.)

    The court opened at 10 o’clock, am.
    The barristers present were:—Mr Teece (Crown Prosecutor) and Mr Buchanan.
    Only the local attorneys were present.

SODOMY.

    George Primmer, charged with a beastly offence, was remanded until the next court of Quarter Sessions, or at such other court as the Attorney-General might appoint, the Crown Prosecutor saying that he was not prepared to go on with the case.

    Prisoner applied for bail, but was told he must make application to a judge of the Supreme Court.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Depositions for George Primmer 25 Apr 1885 Bathurst trial 8

Information – (General Purposes.)

No. 77256

New South Wales, Lithgow 
TO WIT.                           }

Regina v. Primmer.

Be it remembered, that on this fifth day of January in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy eighty five at Lithgow in the Colony of New South Wales, Ann Young of Lithgow appears before me, the undersigned, one of Her Majesty’s Justices duly assigned to keep the Peace of Our Lady the Queen in and for the Colony of New South Wales, and on oath informs me, that on the 2nd day of January in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty five at Lithgow in the Colony aforesaid, one George Primmer did commit the abominable crime of buggery on this complainant without her consent.

Contrary to the Act in such case made and provided; whereupon the said Ann Young prays that I, the said Justice, will proceed in the premises according to law.

[Signed] Ann Young 

Sworn at Lithgow in the said Colony, on the day first above written before me.
[Signed] Edward Gill, JP. 

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

(B.)

Warrant to Apprehend a Person Charged with an Indictable Offence.

To Isaac Morrow, a Sergeant in the Police Force for the Colony of New South Wales, and to all other Constables in said Force.

Whereas George Primmer of Lithgow, in the said Colony, labourer hath this day been charged upon oath before the undersigned, one of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace in and for the said Colony of New South Wales, for that he, on the 2nd day of January now instant, at Lithgow, in the said Colony, did commit the abominable crime of buggery on one Ann Young without her consent.

These are therefore to command you, in Her Majesty’s name, forthwith to apprehend the said George Primmer, and to bring him before me or some other of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace in and for the said Colony, to answer unto the charge, and to be further dealt with according to Law. 

Given under my hand and seal, this 5th day of January, in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty five, at Lithgow in the Colony aforesaid.

[Signed] Edward Gill, JP.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

(M., 11 and 12 Vic., Cap. 42.)

Depositions of Witnesses.

Lithgow
TO WIT.    }

The examination of Isaac Morrow of Lithgow in the Colony of New South Wales, Sergeant of Police, Ann Young of Lithgow in the said Colony, Widow, John Primmer of Lithgow Miner and Morris Asher of Lithgow, in the said Colony, Doctor, taken on oath, this 26th day of January in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty five at Lithgow in the Colony aforesaid, before the undersigned, [two] of Her Majesty’ Justices of Peace for the said Colony, in the presence and hearing of George Primmer who is charged this day before us, for that he the said George Primmer,  on the second day of January 1885 at Lithgow in the said Colony, did commit sodomy on one Ann Young. 

1

George Primmer before the Court Charged with committing Sodomy – 

    Isaac Morrow on oath states:– I am a Sergeant of Police stationed at Lithgow, about five o’clock yesterday morning on the 25th inst I arrested the prisoner now before the Court in a cliff between two rocks where he was cautioned at a place called Hay Stack Creek, near Cock’s River. By virtue of the Warrant I now produce marked A wherein he is charged that he on the second day of January Instant at Lithgow did commit the abominable crime of buggery on one Ann Young. I read the warrant to prisoner, he made no reply to the charge. The Warrant is under the hand and seal of Edward Gill, Justice of the Peace. On Saturday the 3rd instant a woman named Ann Young reported to me at the Police Station Lithgow about 12 o’clock noon, that the prisoner had committed on her the night previous the offence with which he is now charged. I went immediately to his place

2

Lithgow and was then informed that he had gone away. I searched the place and didn’t find him. From then to the date of his arrest I made diligent search about the district with the object of arresting the pre.

[Signed] I Morrow.

Taken and sworn before me at Lithgow the 26th day of January 1885.
[Signed] John B Turnbull, JP and John Lithgow Brown, JP. 

3

    Ann Young duly sworn states on oath states:– I am a widow residing in Lithgow. I know the prisoner and I know where he lived in Lithgow up to the 3rd of this month. On the afternoon of the 2nd instant I went to the prisoner’s place in Lithgow and remained there until 7 and 8 o’clock in the evening. The prisoner was at home most of the time I was there. Prisoner’s son left prisoner’s place with me to carry my bag home for me for which I gave him sixpence. It was nearly dark when I left prisoner’s place. My hut where I live is at the back of the Lithgow Pottery where about 50 or 60 yards from my hut and going along the path the prisoner came out of the bush close to where I was walking. He told his son John to go home. The boy hesitated. Prisoner then motioned him with his hand and told him to go. The boy then left. Prisoner then caught hold of me and threw me down on my face. I screamed out and he told me to hold my bloody row or

4

I will soon settle you. He then placed his fingers in my mouth and his thumb under my chin. With his other hand he pulled up my clothes and caught hold of my leg and then he had connections with me. He had connections with my back passage. I felt the prisoner’s person and it gave me great pain. His person penetrated into my back passage. I am not sure whether there was discharge from prisoner or not. He hurt me much when the connection took place. He might have been a minute and a half or two minutes when in committing the offence took place. Prisoner afterwards let me go and went away. I then went home. At first I crawled on my hands and knees. On the following morning I went to the prisoner’s place about 11 o’clock and told the prisoner in the presence of his wife what he had done to me the night previous. Prisoner told me in reply to what I had said that I was either mad or dreaming. I told the prisoner then that I was going to the Police to report it and he said that if I did

5

he would clear out. I went that same day and reported the matter to the Police. When prisoner was committing the offence on me he inflicted a bruise on my thigh when he caught hold of me with his hand, and scratches on my legs from the gravel. After I reported the matter to the Police I went to Dr Asher who examined me and on the 5th instant I laid an information and obtained a warrant for the prisoner’s arrest. The prisoner knocked one tooth out of my mouth and loosened another whilst committing the offence. Before I was examined by the doctor I found some blood and the day after I was examined by the doctor I found a larger amount of blood. I have not been in the habit of passing blood before the offence took place. Between the time I was examined by the doctor and the passing of blood on the following day I had two motions.

    By the Prisoner: My business at your place on the Friday afternoon was because your children asked me to see the baby. When at your place I sent for two quarts of rum during the afternoon. I was slightly under

6

the influence of drink. I went and lay down on the bed in your place. I did fall out of the bed but I did not hurt myself. I did not fall on the box, I fell alongside of it. After I left your place and going home I kicked against a stone and fell just past the Catholic Chapel. I know Mr Burns picked me up. I am not positive whether it was at the English or Catholic Church. I didn’t fall anywhere else after Mr Burns picked me up. I was walking when you came to me. I did not ask you to shout a glass of beer for me when you came to me in the bush. You did not send the boy for beer.

    By Prisoner: Mrs Young will you swear that I didn’t have connection with you with your consent. Answer “No I you did not.

    By Prisoner: Did I ever have connection with you in your own house. Answer “No you did not”. I never was in gaol or a Court House before. I was never in any trouble about my husband.

[Signed] Ann Young.

Taken and sworn before me at Lithgow this 26th day of January 1885.
[Signed] JB Turnbull, JP, JL Brown, JP.

7

    John Primmer duly sworn on oath states:– I reside in Lithgow and am 13 years of age. The prisoner is my father. I know Ann Young the prosecutor in this case. I recollect going with him to her place from my father’s place on the evening of the 2nd of this month. While going with Mrs Young to her place prisoner came to us near the Pottery. Prisoner cam up to us, gave me a shilling and told me to go and get some beer. We were then about 70 yards from Mrs Young’s place. It’s very bushy about there. I then left to get the beer, leaving the prisoner and Mrs Young together. I went to Consull’s Hotel and got the beer and was going back to where I left Mrs Young and the prisoner and I met prisoner at the English Church. I gave him the beer which was in a bottle. He then left me and went up the town and I went home. I was at home the following day when Mrs Young came to my father’s hut. My mother prevented me from hearing any conversation that took place. Afterwards Mrs Young left. My father told me to follow her down to the (Saso ?) Mill at Lithgow. When I got to the

8

Mill my father had his hand caught. He then told me to go home and to come back again at about 3 o’clock and to come up the gully. I went back but I didn’t see him. About quarter past 12 that night I left Lithgow prisoner’s (plane ? plain ?) and went to my uncle John Martin at Haystack Creek and during the night the prisoner came there. On looking at the prisoner I see that he is different to when he went away. His whiskers are cut short. I have never seen him from the time he went away until this morning.

    By the Prisoner: Mrs Young fell against the English Church while going home that night. She fell lots of times.

[Signed] John J Primmer.

Taken and sworn before us at Lithgow this 26th day of January 1885.
[Signed] JB Turnbull, JP. JL Brown, JP.

9

    Doctor Morris Asher being duly sworn on oath states:– I am a duly qualified Medical Practitioner residing in Lithgow. I recollect on the 3rd instant examining Mrs Young the prosecutor in this case at my Surgery. I found on the outer side of the left thigh a bruise about two inches long and an inch and a half in width and also on the outer side of the left leg below the knee several scratches. There was signs of the recent loss of one of the lower incisors teeth and a front tooth in both the upper and lower jaw were loosened. There was dintation dilatation of the parts surrounding the anus. The lining of the bowels protruded, and there was a tear about half an inch in its extent at its posterior part. This was a fresh wound with slight bleeding with the ulceration. There was evidence of the skin surrounding the. The injuries could be produced by the commission of the offence said to be committed. After my examination further bleeding might have been produced by the reopening or extension of the wound provided Mrs Young had a motion of the bowel.

    By the Prisoner: The wound on the thigh and leg could have been produced by the

10

woman falling down. The other wounds could be inflicted otherwise than by a man’s person. It was quite possible to knock teeth out of the mouth of a woman of Mrs Young’s age by placing the hand across the mouth as described and it is possible for them to be knocked out by her falling on her face but I saw no marks of her having fallen on her face.

[Signed] Morris Asher.

Taken and sworn before us at Lithgow this 26th day of January 1885.
[Signed] JB Turnbull, JP, JL Brown, JP.

11

    Prisoner stands committed to take his trial at Bathurst at the Quarter Sessions to be holden on Thursday the 27th of January 1885.

[Signed] JB Turnbull, JP, JL Brown, JP.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

(N., 11 & 12 Vic., Cap. 42.)

Statement of the Accused.

New South Wales, Lithgow
TO WIT.                            }

George Primmer stands charged before the undersigned, one of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace in and the Colony aforesaid, this 26th day of January in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty five for that he, the said George Primmer on the 2nd day of January 1885 at Lithgow, in the said Colony, did commit sodomy on one Ann Young.

And the examinations of all the witnesses on the part of the prosecution having been completed, and the depositions taken against the accused having been caused to be read to him by me, the said Justice (by/or) before whom such examination has been so completed; and I, the said Justice, having also stated to the accused and given him clearly to understand that he has nothing to hope from any promise of favour, and nothing to fear from any threat which may have been holden out to him to induce him to make any admission or confession of his guilt, but that whatever he shall say may be given in evidence against him upon his trial, notwithstanding such promise or threat; and the said charge being read to the said George Primmer, and the witnesses for the prosecution Isaac Morrow, Ann Young, John Primmer and Morris Asher being severally examined in his presence, the said George Primmer is addressed by me as follows:– “Having heard the evidence, do you wish to say anything in answer to the charge? You are not obliged to say anything unless you desire to do so; but whatever you say will be taken down in writing and may be given in evidence against you upon your trial;” whereupon the said George Primmer saith as follows:– The prisoner has nothing to say “I have nothing to say.”

Taken before me, at Lithgow, in the said Colony, the day and year first abovementioned.
[Signed] JB Turnbull, JP.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

(O. 1, 11 & 12 Vic., Cap. 42.)

Recognizance to give Evidence

New South Wales, Lithgow
TO WIT.                             }

Be it remembered, that on the 26th day of January in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty five Isaac Morrow of Lithgow a Sergeant of the Police Force, Ann Young of Lithgow in the Colony of New South Wales, Charles Samuel Gibbons for John Primmer of Lithgow in the said Colony, and Morris Asher in the said Colony, Medical Practitioner of Lithgow personally came before the undersigned, one of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the Colony of New South Wales, and acknowledged themselves to owe Our Sovereign Lady the Queen the sum of

FORTY POUNDS EACH,

of good and lawful money of Great Britain, to be made and levied on their Goods and Chattels, Lands and Tenements, to the use of our said Lady the Queen, her Heirs and Successors, if they the said before mentioned persons shall fail in the condition indorsed.

[Signed] I Morrow, Ann Young, Morris Asher, Charles S Gibbons “for John Primmer”.

Taken and acknowledged, the day and year first abovementioned, at Lithgow in the said Colony, before me.
[Signed] JB Turnbull, JP.

The condition of the within written Recognizance is such, that whereas George Primmer was charged this day before John B Turnbull and John Lithgow Brown, Esquires, two of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the said Colony, with committing sodomy on one Ann Young. 

If therefore, they the before mentioned persons shall appear at the next Court of Quarter Sessions to be holden at Bathurst, in and for the Colony of New South Wales, on the 27th day of January 1885, at nine of the clock in the forenoon, and then and there give such evidence as they know, upon an information to be then and there preferred against the said George Primmer for the offence aforesaid, to the Jurors who shall pass upon the Trial of the said George Primmer.

Then the said Recognizance to be void, or else to stand in full force and virtue.

[Signed] JB Turnbull, JP.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

[On the depositions’ cover sheet is the following]

Bathurst Circuit Court
Quarter Session
27th January 1885
No. 24 AG
No.2
Regina
v.
George Primmer
Buggery
Committed: at Lithgow
26th January 1885

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Please refer this case to the Hon the Attorney General.

    The Magistrates committed this prisoner to take his trial at the Bathurst [Quarter] Sessions – which were held on 27 Jan 1885. The case is one of a very serious & unusual character & I respectfully suggest should be tried at the Bathurst Circuit Court. I may add under the 459 sec of the Criminal Law Amendment act, I think it doubtful if the Sessions have jurisdiction.

Bathurst 27/1/85
[Signed] John Jeremiah Teece, [Crown Prosecutor, Western District]

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The case may be tried at the Bathurst Circuit Court

[Initialled] W[illiam] B[ede] D[alley, QC,] AG

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Justice MH Stephen’s notebook   9  10

Justice Matthew Henry Stephen. Image:Australian Town and Country Journal, Sat 4 Jun 1887, p. 1175. Reproduction: Peter de Waal
Justice Matthew Henry Stephen.
Image: Australian Town and Country Journal, Sat
4 Jun 1887, p. 1175. Reproduction: Peter de Waal

13

[Bathurst, 25 April 1885]
George Primmer – Sodomy – on Ann Young
Plea not guilty.

    Isaac Morrow. Sergeant Police of Lithgow. I know prisoner – in January last between 3rd & 25th I had occasion to look for him. I met prisoner on the 25th in the morning at 5 o’clock in a crevice between two rocks on a mountain at a place called Hay Stack Creek 7 miles from Lithgow. He was lying down asleep – I awoke him and arrested him by virtue of a warrant which I read to him – I know Ann Young of Lithgow. I saw her on 3rd January about 12 o’clock – she came to Police Station and made a complaint. The warrant was issued after. Between 3rd & 25th I was looking daily for prisoner. Inquired 

14

several times at his own house. He was working at a saw mill up to this time. Unable to find him until 25th.

    Ann Young – I am a widow – live at Lithgow – a hut – ¼ hour’s walk from Lithgow – I used to visit prisoner occasionally – he is married – has wife & children. After dinner on the 2nd about 2 or 3 in the afternoon I went to his house – I stayed 2 or 3 hours – John Primmer his son left with me and went with me to where I met Primmer – close to my own place in the bush. We were in the cart path & he met me. Prisoner told the boy to go home – he hesitated – prisoner said go – & boy went – there was then no one near me that I know of – Prisoner knocked me down – he did not 

15

speak first – caught hold of me & threw me – flung me down on my face and hands – He tore up my clothes – I know what the doctors call the anus, the back passage of the human body – he put his person – his private parts within my person – the part of my body that have I have described – only scraping of my knees – pushed his hand in my mouth and helped held my jaw – one tooth fell out and the other was loosened – my mouth was bleeding – after he did what he liked he went away – he told me to hold my bloody (row ?) or he would settle me. I was very bad – could scarcely walk – on following day unusual discharge kind of blood from inside – It did hurt me – at that particular place – he could have been a minute or minute ½ – he went away – I went on

16

my hands & knees – went to my place. I saw prisoner on following morning – I went to his house – saw prisoner with wife wife in prisoner’s presence. I told him that I should go to the Police. He said that he would clear out. I saw Sergeant Morrell 11 the morning after. I saw Dr Asher at his reside office a little time after dinner same day. He examined me – The discharge only lasted the one day – the same day & the day after I saw the Doctor – a little the first day – more the next.

    Cross-examined. I 12 had often been to my house – he 13 had a glass of beer together – I don’t think that we had any beer on the 2nd – we had on New Year’s Day – I cannot say that I was exactly sober. No conversation passed – I did not (press ?) – the boy was not sent for anything – I swear he was not – by me the boy is about 12 or 13.

17

    By Juror I am certain that he put his private parts within the anus.

    John Primmer. I know Mrs Young. I remember the 2nd January this year. I saw her part of the way – we started together – son of the prisoner – (It ?) (was ?) from the prisoner’s house that [we ?] started on that occasion. We went nearly all the way home – 70 yards from her home. Prisoner came up to us – Mrs Y[oung] wanted me to go for beer. I told her no – I went for the prisoner to Connelly’s – an Hotel – I was bringing it back when my father met me & then I went home – he went up the road – by me 10 minutes: the time of me leaving to go to Connelly’s & my meeting my father – I gave the beer to my father.

    Cross-examined. She offered me 1/- to go for the beer – you gave me 1/- and asked me to (much ?) hasten back.– 

18

by the (road ?) – the PH [Public House] is 200 yards from where I left my father, not so far as from here to the Railway Station – about half way.

    By Juror. My father went in an opposite direction from the woman’s hut.

    By another. Mrs Young was tipsy when I was bringing her home in the cart.

    By me. They had no drink at my father’s – she had some with her. She was tipsy when she came to my father’s house – & stayed an hour and a half – I carried her bag for her.

    Morris Asher. Duly qualified medical practitioner – practising at Lithgow. I know Ann Young. I saw her on the 3rd January – sent for 

19

examination. I examined her. A diffused bruise on outer surface of left thigh – also several scratches on outer side of left leg – below the knee – (dilation ?) of the part round the anus – parts not so close as they ought to be – redness of the skin immediately surrounding the anus – and a recent tear and slight ulceration of the back part of the anus – tear was ⅓ inch long – also a prolapse of the bowel – slight protrusion – the anus is the lower end of the bowel – continuous with the passage – recent loss of a tooth – loosening of other but can’t say that this was recent – I examined about 2 o’clock – evidence on which I base my evidence that there was a recent tear with the appearance of blood – the rim of the anus was torn and extended backward & outward from the opening – ⅓rd of an inch.

20

The injuries were consistent with

My opinion

    The recent tear must I consider have been within 24 hours – I examined her between one & three – those injuries could be produced by act of sodomy –

    By me. I do not think that the injuries besides the tear being there collectively could be produced other than by violence.

    By Juror. I think that the tooth must have been lost within 48 hours at all events.

Guilty 

7 years imprisonment Bathurst penal servitude. * Whipping 25 strokes on 14 May –

Previous convictions October 73 June ’72 – (charged with feloniously (hitting ?) a horse – case not proceeded with)

21

* George Primmer’s Previous Convictions:

Offence

1.  Quarter Sessions December 1873 – Grievous bodily harm, inflicting
2.  Quarter Sessions March 1878 – Horse Stealing
3.  Lithgow Bench June 1880 – Larceny 
4.  Quarter Sessions July 1880 – Larceny & receiving 
5.  ditto 
6.  ditto 
7.  ditto 

Pleaded guilty to offences 5-7
Sentences 4-7 to be served concurrently. 

Sentence

– 12 months hard labour 
– 12 months hard labour. 
– 6 months hard labour. 
– 3 years hard labour. 
– 3 years hard labour. 
– 3 years hard labour. 
– 3 years hard labour. 

 

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Bathurst Times, Sat 25 Apr 1885 14

BATHURST CIRCUIT COURT.
SATURDAY, APRIL 25, [1885]
(Before His Honor Acting Judge MH Stephen, QC)

    The Bathurst Circuit Court was formally opened this morning with the usual formalities. The Hon WH Suttor, MLC, was authorised to act as Deputy Sheriff.

    Mr GH Reid prosecuted for the Crown. Mr Harold F Norrie was the acting Crown Solicitor; and Mr Gerald Campbell the Judge’s associate.

    The only barrister present, in addition to GH Reid, was Mr H Butterworth.

    The local solicitors were also in attendance.

    Among others present in the body of the Court were the Hon E Barton (Speaker of the Legislative Assembly), Mr Benjamin Lee, PM., Mr Superintendent Lydiard, Mr Kirkwood (Sheriff’s Officer), and Mr Forbes (governor of the gaol).

    The following cases were initiated or dealt with:–

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Bathurst Times, Mon 27 Apr 1885 15

BATHURST CIRCUIT COURT.
SATURDAY, APRIL 25
(Before His Honor Acting Judge WH Stephen, QC)

    Mr GH Reid prosecuted for the Crown. Mr Harold F Norrie was the acting Crown Solicitor; and Mr Gerald Campbell the Judge’s associate.
    After we went to press on Saturday the following cases were tried:–

UNNATURAL OFFENCE.

    George Primmer was charged with having, at Lithgow, on the 2nd January, 1885, committed an unnatural offence. He pleaded not guilty. The evidence in this case is unfit for publication. The prosecutrix, Ann Young, was an old woman about 60 years, and the prisoner a young and respectable looking working man with a wife and children. The witnesses having been examined, and the Judge having summed up, the jury retired, and after an absence of an hour, returned into court with a verdict of guilty. 

    His Honor said prisoner was subject to a long sentence, as well as a whipping. He was remanded for sentence.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Bathurst Times, Tue 28 Apr 1885 16

BATHURST CIRCUIT COURT.
MONDAY, APRIL 27
(Before His Honor Acting Judge MH Stephen, QC)

    Mr GH Reid prosecuted for the Crown. Mr Harold F Norrie was the acting Crown Solicitor; and Mr Gerald Campbell the Judge’s associate.
    His Honor took his seat on the bench at 10 am, the Hon WH Suttor, MLC acting as deputy sheriff.

TUESDAY, APRIL 28

     His Honor ascended the Bench at 9.30 am.

SENTENCES.

    Michael Rawson, convicted of stealing 47 sheep, the property of David McRae, of Campbell’s River, was brought up for sentence, and said he threw himself on the mercy of the Court.

    Mr Forbes read a list of convictions against the prisoner for sheep stealing, and kindred offences.

    His Honor said the crime of which the prisoner had been convicted was a most audacious one. He was sentenced to six years hard labour in Bathurst gaol. Prisoner asked if he could petition, but his Honor said there were no grounds for one.

    George Primmer, convicted of an unnatural offence at Lithgow, handed in a written statement to his Honor, solemnly declaring his innocence, and asserting that though his relations with the woman Young were immoral, they had not been of such a horrible character as the verdict of the jury would lead his Honor to infer. He prayed for a short if severe sentence, so that he should not be estranged from his wife and family.

His Honor said he concurred in the verdict of the jury, and the evidence of the woman was given in a straightforward manner, whatever her character was. It was evident prisoner was a disreputable person on his own showing.

    Mr Forbes, governor of the gaol, read a long list of previous convictions against the prisoner some of the sentences being heavy.

    His Honor said that if prisoner had been found guilty 2 years ago of the crime of which he was convicted, he would have been sentenced to death. He (the Judge) was disposed to inflict an exemplary and severe sentence, one that would meet the evident depravity of the prisoner. His Honor sentenced prisoner to 7 years’ penal servitude, and ordered that on the 14th May, 25 lashes be inflicted on him. If prisoner, in the meantime, had anything to place before the Executive Council in mitigation of the penalty, he could do so.

    Prisoner was then removed.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal, Wed 3 Jun 1885 17

GENERAL NEWS.
———◦———
LITHGOW.
(Mercury.)

    GEORGE PRIMMER—We are given to understand that the convict George Primmer, who was sentenced to seven years’ penal servitude and twenty-five lashes, for an unnatural offence committed at Lithgow, underwent the latter portion of his sentence at Parramatta gaol on the 14th inst, and he bore it very badly, showing by unmistable [sic] signs that he felt the terrible ordeal very keenly. He has since been in hospital.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

George Primmer, Gaol photo sheet 18

SRNSW: NRS2397, [3/6009], Parramatta photographic description book, 1880-1891, No. 326, p. 91, R5136.

 


Gaol Photo Sheet - Transcribed Details

No. 326

Date when Portrait was taken: 12th May 1885

Prisoner's Name: George Primmer

Native place: Hartley

Year of birth: 1851

Arrived        Ship: n/a
in Colony }   Year: n/a

Trade or occupation
previous to conviction  } Labourer

Religion: C of E

Education, degree of: Nil

Colour of hair: Sandy

Colour of eyes: Brown

Height: 5' 11½"

Weight     On committal: 
in lbs     }  On discharge: 

Marks or Special Features:  (?) (?)

Where and when tried: Bathurst CC.
25th April 1885

Offence: Sodomy

Sentence: 7 years PS & 25 lashes

Remarks:

 (No. of Previous Portrait ... 135 Bathurst ) 

PREVIOUS CONVICTIONS

Where and When Offence. Sentence

Bathurst Q.S

Bathurst Q.S

Lithgow PC

Bathurst Q.S

 4

 5

 ?

 6

12

  3

  6

  7

1873

1878

1880

1880

Grievous bodily harm

Horse stealing

Larceny

Larceny & receiving
ditto
ditto
ditto

12 months, HL

12 months, HL

6 months HL

3 years, HL  |
3 years, HL  |  (?) H.L. on each
3 years, HL  |  charge concurrent
3 years. HL  |

  


 

George Primmer, 1897 

 

The Dubbo Liberal and Macquarie Advocate, Wed 27 Jan 1897 19

POLICE COURT.
————
SATURDAY, JANUARY 23.
(Before Mr LS Donaldson, PM.)

————

A SERIOUS CHARGE. 

    George Primmer was charged with criminally assaulting Florence Primmer, his daughter, under the age of 14 years.

    Constable Keogh said he arrived at Belarbigill [sic– Belarbigal] at 4 o’clock on Wednesday morning. He went to a house and saw accused. Constable McKinley and black tracker Hughie was with him. As witness got to the door the accused opened it; he was partially dressed. Witness said “Step outside, I want to speak to you, Primmer.” He did so, and witness then said “Where were you yesterday?” and he replied “I was at home.” Asked him if he was at home all day, and he answered “Yes, except a few hours in the evening._ Asked him what time he left, and he replied “about 3 o’clock.” Asked him what time he returned; he replied “at dark.” Witness then said “I arrest you, Primmer, on a charge of criminally assaulting a girl under 14 years of age.” After about 10 seconds’ pause, the accused said “This is terrible; the cowardly wretches, the cowardly dogs, to bring a charge like this against me; if they wanted to get rid of me they could have me on another charge.” Then took him inside the house and asked him to put his boots on. He was crying, and repeated “the cowardly wretches” several times. Witness heard him say in a very low tone “Why did I not go away?” Witness said, “You have been drinking, Primmer,” and he said “Yes, but I know what I am doing.” When he was dressed he said “Well, I suppose we had better be going,” and walked to the door. Witness went outside and got his horse. The accused struck a match on the doorstep to light his pipe, and witness was looking round to see if accused was coming he saw Primmer running out of the back door towards the Macquarie river, which was about 70 yards from his house. Ran after him and caught him about half-way between the house and the river. Handcuffed him and asked him to get on a horse which witness had ready saddled for him. Accused said ”I cannot on with these things,” meaning the handcuffs, and witness said he would assist him. Instead of trying to get on the accused threw himself down on the ground, and a horse and cart was procured, and he was brought to town in it. About half an hour after witness charged him, and before starting in, accused said, “there’s something in this, Keogh; where did this happen?” and witness replied, “somewhere about your place.” He replied, “somewhere about my place? Why, why it must be my own daughter then,” and witness answered “yes, it is your own daughter who has laid the information against you.” Previous to this he had not mentioned the name of the girl whom he was charged with criminally assaulting. Primmer said “There’s more than this in it, but I suppose I’ll know all about it in a few days.” Between the time of charging him and taking him away Primmer drunk the whole of the contents of a small bottle of schnapps. The little girl Florence Isabella Victoria Primmer was taken to Dr Tresidder on the night previous to the arrest. Witness produced some articles of clothing worn by the child.

    Dr Tresidder gave evidence of the examination of Florence Primmer.

    Hannah Primmer, wife of the accused, said she resided on a farm at Belarbigill. She had a little step daughter named Florence Isabella Victoria Primmer; she was 12 years of age on September 20 last, and she, resided in the house with witness and her husband. She went to school, and on Wednesday last the girl was at school at Belarbigill about two miles from the house; she left home about 8 o’clock in the morning, and returned about 4 o’clock in the evening crying. When asked what was the matter she complained of her father assaulting her in the paddock. In reply to a question the little girl said her father had assaulted her a lot of times. Took her as soon as possible to the police and then to Dr Tresidder. On Wednesday her husband left the house a few minutes before four o’clock in the afternoon on horseback and went in the direction of the school, and returned about 7 or 7.30 in the evening very drunk. He was on his horse, and his son was leading his horse. She did not say anything to him about what had happened to the girl, as she did not think he would understand. She left the house without telling him she was going to the police. She never said a word to him about what had happened to the girl.

    Florence Isabella Victoria Primmer gave evidence that she met her father when returning from school on Wednesday afternoon. She detailed the particulars of the assault. Her father said he would kill her if she told anyone.

    Ernest Arthur Primmer, son of the accused, said on Wednesday evening he saw his father at a farmer’s place, Mr Myers Strangers, three quarters of a mile from home. When he arrived he was sober. From there he went to Schumack’s public house, and returned to Stranger’s about sundown; he was then drunk. They returned together to the house.

    The case was adjourned until Monday.

————
MONDAY, JANUARY 25.
(Before Mr LS Donaldson, PM.)

A SERIOUS CHARGE.

    The case of George Primmer was continued.
    Evidence was given of the age of the child Florence Primmer.
    Accused, who had nothing to say, was committed for trial to the Assize Court to be held at Dubbo on April 6. Bail was refused.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Evening News, Fri 23 Apr 1897 20

SENTENCE TO DEATH.
————
A DUBBO CASE.
————

    DUBBO, Friday.—At the Circuit Court to-day, George Primmer was found guilty of assaulting his daughter, Florence Isabel Victoria Primmer, at Bellarbigill, near Dubbo, on January 20. The girl at the time of the offence was 12 years and 4 months of age. His Honor passed sentence of death. This is the second death sentence Judge Cohen has had to pass at these assizes.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Dubbo Liberal and Macquarie Advocate, Sat 24 Apr 1897 21

CIRCUIT COURT.
————
TUESDAY, APRIL 20.
(Before his Honor Mr Justice Cohen and
juries).

    Mr GH Taylor, JP, Deputy Sheriff, attended his Honor on the bench.
    Mr T Rolin prosecuted for the Crown.

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 21.

THURSDAY, APRIL 22.

A CAPITAL CHARGE.

    George Primmer pleaded not guilty to an indictment charging him with criminally assaulting Florence Isabel Victoria Primmer at Belarbigill, on January 20 last. Mr PK White, instructed by Mr RJJ Ryan, appeared for the defence.

    The accused freely exercised his right of challenge.

    Mr Rolin, in opening the case, said the accused was charged with the crime of rape, committed on January 20 last, near his own house at Belarbigill, where the accused lived with his wife and children. The crime was committed on his own daughter, a daughter by a previous marriage, a girl at the time the Crown charged the offence was committed in a paddock some distance from the accused’s own residence, when [text missing here] met his little girl about 4 o’clock in the afternoon, returning from school [text missing here] stopping her, spoke to her [text missing here]

    His Honor, in passing sentence, said:—The jury have considered the circumstances of your case, and no doubt have seriously considered it, seeing that the result of their verdict meant the forfeiture of your life, and they would not have come to that determination unless they were strongly impressed with the honesty and truthfulness of your child. There is no doubt that this is a very serious case, and on the assumption that you are guilty, a very revolting one. It seems to me that this is the final step in a gradual downward career which started in 1878. During the latter years of your present married life you have unfortunately given way to drunken habits. The sentences you have served for the offences of which you have been convicted on five previous occasions, have not had that strong steadying effect on you which one would have thought they must have had. Although since 1885 there is no conviction against you, yet under that sentence last passed on you, you would have served imprisonment in the ordinary course of things up to the year 1890; that is, allowing for the ordinary good conduct remission. In 1891 you married, and having then just before been released from imprisonment for an unnatural offence. You immediately afterwards, according to the evidence of your little girl, commenced these indecent assaults upon her. The probability is given to her story by the light of the evidence on which you were convicted. You only have yourself to blame for being in the unfortunate and perilous position in which you now are. Juries as a rule lean as far as they possibly can in favour of life; in so far as my short experience goes, there is proof, where they see a fair and reasonable account, rather than find a verdict involving a man in a sentence which, so far as the court itself is concerned, necessitates the sacrifice of life, are always prepared to take, or rather generally take a lenient view of the case, therefore it seems to me the jury having carefully considered the case, having had it put before them in all its bearings—as far as I am concerned I have done you justice—have felt themselves constrained under a sense of justice, having due regard to the solemn oaths which they have taken, to bring in this verdict which they have brought against you. It now remains for me to discharge the painful duty in so far as this court is concerned, to complete the final episode in this unfortunate business. The sentence of the court is that you, George Primmer, be taken from hence to the place from whence you came, and that on a day to be fixed by his Excellency the Governor and the Executive Council, you be taken to the place of execution, and there be hanged by the neck until you be dead, and may the Lord have mercy on your soul. Personally it is not in my province to hold out any hope for you. The circumstances of the case no doubt will be fully considered by the Executive, and if there are any features at all favourable to you in respect to which the Executive may think it consistent with their duty that your life should not be forfeited, they will be fully considered. But personally as the Judge, I hold out no hope to you; my duty ends with the passing of the sentence.

    The prisoner was removed, and the Court adjourned for a quarter of an hour.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Dubbo Liberal and Macquarie Advocate, Wed 5 May 1897 22

PRIMMER REPRIEVED.
————
FLOGGED INSTEAD OF HANGED.

Sydney, Tuesday.

    The executive to-day decided the case of the two men sentenced to death for rape. It was decided that the death sentence passed on Hines, tried at Maitland, shall be carried out, and in the case of George Primmer, sentenced recently to Dubbo, a reprieve was granted. The sentence was changed to imprisonment for life, with a whipping of 25 lashes.

 


 

 

Primmer v. Primmer, 1907 

 

The Dubbo Liberal and Macquarie Advocate, Sat 15 Jun 1907 23

PECULIAR DIVORCE SUIT.
————

    In the Divorce Court on Tuesday, Hannah Primmer, formerly Sunderland, applied for the dissolution of her marriage with George Primmer, on the ground that for three years prior to the presentation of the petition he had been imprisoned and was still in prison under a commuted sentence for capital crime. In the course of the evidence the petitioner said she married respondent in December, 1891, at Holy Trinity Church, Dubbo, according to the rites of the Anglican Church. He was a widower with three daughters, and followed the occupation of a farmer. She lived with him until January, 1897. In that year her husband was tried before Mr Justice Cohen, at the Dubbo Circuit Court for a capital offence and was sentenced to death. At this stage his Honor directed the case to stand over in order that certain affidavits might be filed.

 


1    The Western Independent, Thu 7 Mar 1878, p. 3.

2    The Bathurst Times, Sat 9 Mar 1878, pp. 2, 6. Emphasis added.

3    The Western Independent, Sat 9 Mar 1878, p. 2. Emphasis added.

4    SRNSW: NRS1998, [3/5955], Bathurst Gaol photographic description book, 22 Dec 1874-27 Jul 1880, No. 135, p. 128, R5084.

5    The Sydney Morning Herald, Thu 10 Jun 1880, p. 6. Emphasis added.

6    The Sydney Morning Herald, Fri 18 Jun 1880, p. 5. Emphasis added.

7    The Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal, Wed 28 Jan 1885, p. 2.

8    SRNSW: NRS880, [9/6721], Supreme Court, Papers and depositions, Bathurst, 1885, No. 9.

9    SRNSW: NRS7710, [2/7218], Judiciary, MH Stephen, J. Notebooks Circuit Courts, 1876-1903, pp. 13-21. Emphasis added.

10  Sir Justice Matthew Henry Stephen (1828-1920), barrister and judge, was born on 5 Dec 1828 at Hobart Town, third son of Sir Alfred Stephen. The family reached Sydney per Medway  in May 1839. The young Stephen was at WT Cape’s Sydney College. At 17 he became judge’s associate to Sir James Dowling and later to his own father. On 20 Dec 1850 was admitted to the colonial Bar. In the early 1860s Stephen twice refused the solicitor-generalship and again when offered the position by Edward Butler. Stephen became a QC on 2 Apr 1879 and in Jul of that year refused appointment as a Supreme Court judge. From 1876 Stephen often acted as judge on circuit. On 23 May 1887 he was sworn in as NSW Supreme Court a puisne judge. His notebooks number 125 volumes. From 16 Jun 1902 to 4 Feb 1904 he was acting chief justice during the absence of Sir Frederick Darley. Stephen resigned from the bench in 1904 and was knighted the same year. He died from nephritis on 1 Apr 1920 at his home, Honiton, Victoria Road, Bellevue Hill and was buried in the South Head cemetery. ADB, 1851-1890, vol. 6, pp. 190-1.

11  Should read Morrow.

12  Almost certainly means he or prisoner.

13  Should read we.

14  The Bathurst Times, Sat 25 Apr 1885, p. 2.

15  The Bathurst Times, Mon 27 Apr 1885, p. 2.

16  The Bathurst Times, Tue 28 Apr 1885, p. 2. Emphasis added.

17  The Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal, Wed 3 Jun 1885, p. 3.

18  SRNSW: NRS2397, [3/6009], Parramatta photographic description book, 1880-1891, No. 326, p. 91, R5136.

19  The Dubbo Liberal and Macquarie Advocate, Wed 27 Jan 1897, p. 3. Emphasis added.

20  Evening News, (Sydney, NSW), Fri 23 Apr 1897, p. 5.

21  The Dubbo Liberal and Macquarie Advocate, Sat 24 Apr 1897, pp. 2, 3. Emphasis added.

22  The Dubbo Liberal and Macquarie Advocate, Wed 5 May 1897, p. 3.

23  The Dubbo Liberal and Macquarie Advocate, Sat 15 Jun 1907, p. 3.