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1877, Thomas Steele - Unfit For Publication
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Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, Tue 6 Mar 1877 1

NEWCASTLE POLICE COURT.
————
MONDAY, MARCH 5, 1877.
(Before Messrs Scott, PM, and Moody,
Robson, and HA Smith, JP’s.)

DISORDERLY CONDUCT ON BOARD SHIP.

    Thomas Steele, seaman on board the barque West Australian, was convicted of the above offence on Sunday, the 4th instant, and sentenced to pay a fine of 40s, or to undergo forty-eight hours’ imprisonment.

    The same prisoner was also charged with assaulting the police in the execution of their duty, and, being convicted, was sent to Maitland gaol for one month.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, Wed 7 Mar 1877 2

CITY & DISTRICT
————
NEWCASTLE.


    COURTHOUSE ACCOMMODATION.—We have frequently drawn attention to the serious inconvenience caused at the Police Court by the noises of vehicles passing in the street. Yesterday his Honor Mr Judge Wilkinson, when a jury had been empannelled [sic] in the case Moore and Son v Redman, said he would do all in his power to modify the inconvenience they must feel on account of the heat of the Court-house and the noises of the drays and other vehicles passing. He had telegraphed to the proper authorities in reference to the matter, but there was no present remedy. He was sure the responsibility of the parties whose duty it was to administer justice every day in the court must be very great.

    NARROW ESCAPE OF JUDGE WILKINSON FROM DROWNING.—His Honor Mr District Court Judge Wilkinson almost invariably avails himself of a morning “dip in the briny,” when in Newcastle, but yesterday, we regret to say, he narrowly escaped being drowned. In company with Mr Robert B Hogue and Mr GK Scott, His Honor was bathing in the breakers at the rear of the hospital. The drawback at the spot was very strong, and the judge getting a little beyond the ordinary swimming bounds was being quickly carried out to sea. He appeared to keep his presence of mind, and no doubt would have been drowned, had not Mr Hogue dashed to the rescue, and, seizing his Honor most unceremoniously by the nape of the neck, quickly rescued him from danger. Mr Scott rendered Mr Hogue the necessary assistance to get his Honor ashore, and we are pleased to say that no serious results are likely to follow. His Honor was able to open the court yesterday. We understand that this is the fifth person Mr Hogue has saved lately, and no doubt his last brave act will be suitably recognised.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, Tue 17 Apr 1877 3

NEWCASTLE POLICE COURT.
MONDAY, 16 APRIL 1877.
(Before Mr [Helenus] Scott,  PM and Mr Smith JP)

(Before Mr Scott PM)

UNNATURAL OFFENCE

    Thomas Steele, aged 36 years, a seaman who pleaded guilty  to a charge of drunkenness, was charged with attempting to commit an unnatural offence, in a cell of the lockup on the 15th inst.

    Prisoner was remanded until the 17th inst, for evidence.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, Wed 18 Apr 1877 4

NEWCASTLE POLICE COURT.
TUESDAY, 17 APRIL 1877.
(Before Messrs. H Scott, PM and FJ Shaw JP)

UNNATURAL OFFENCE.

    Thomas Steele was convicted of attempting to commit sodomy with one Abraham Ford, alias Chapman, in a cell at the police station, Newcastle, on the 15th instant.

    The evidence is totally unfit for publication. The prisoner and Ford had been locked up for being drunk, and being both placed in one cell, the offence, for which the prisoner is committed for trial, is presumed to have been perpetrated.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Depositions for Thomas Steele 16 Oct 1877 Maitland trial 5

(N., 11 & 12 Vic., Cap. 42.)

Depositions of Witnesses.

New South Wales, Newcastle
TO WIT.                               }

Regina Versus Thomas Steele Attempt at Sodomy.

The examination of Lewis Griffiths of Newcastle in the Colony of New South Wales, Senior Constable, Michael Ryan of Newcastle Constable, Abraham Ford [aka Chapman] of Newcastle Boiler maker and Richard Harris, Doctor of Newcastle in the said Colony, taken on the 16th and 17th days of April in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy seven at Newcastle in the Colony aforesaid, before the undersigned one of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the said Colony, in the presence and hearing of Thomas Steele who is charged this day before me for that he the said Thomas Steele   on the 15th day of April Instant at Newcastle in the said Colony, did attempt to commit sodomy with one Abraham Ford at Newcastle.

1

PC:–77/400

    Lewis Griffiths—on his oath saith I am a Senior Constable in the Wales Police Force stationed at Newcastle. I was in charge of the lock up at Newcastle from 8 o’clock on Saturday evening till 8 o’clock on Sunday morning. I was there when the prisoner (Thomas Steele) was brought to the lock up  on a charge of drunkenness at ½ past 8 o’clock on Saturday night last. I locked him up in a cell by himself. At a ¼ past 12 o’clock on Sunday morning a man named Abraham Ford Chapman was locked up in the same cell with the prisoner the man now brought before the Court who gives his name as Abraham Ford is the same man, he was charged with using obscene language. I locked him up

2

in the same cell as the prisoner. They were the only 2 in that cell. Chapman alias Ford was very drunk. I looked in through the bars of the cell about 1 o’clock on Sunday morning in answer to a call of the prisoner for water. I gave him a drink of water. Chapman alias Ford was lying close to the gate and his clothes were not disarranged in any way neither were the prisoner’s. About ½ an hour afterwards I again looked through the bars of the cell. I saw Chapman alias Ford still lying on the floor on his left side with his trousers pulled down nearly to his knees and the lower part of his body naked. The prisoner was lying with his right arm across Ford’s body and close up against

3

him with his face to Ford’s back and I saw the prisoner’s person exposed. I then thought that the prisoner was having connection with Ford. I did not see the prisoner move and thought he was asleep. I then went and got Constable Ryan off the beat. Five minutes elapsed before I brought him. When I came back with Ryan the prisoner was still in the same position and his person still exposed. I then opened the cell door and rolled the prisoner over and saw that his trousers were undone and his person still exposed. He appeared to be asleep. I roused him up and accused him of attempting to commit sodomy with Ford, he said it was nothing only a drop of milk. He still seemed stupid from the effects of drink but not so much as not to know what he was about

4

I then removed the prisoner to another cell by himself. Dr Harris arrived soon afterwards and examined Ford and also the prisoner. Ford was still lying in the same position when the doctor examined him, and seemed to be perfectly unconscious and I then charged the prisoner with attempting to commit sodomy on the prisoner Chapman alias Ford. He said “OK that’ll do”. When I rolled over the prisoner from Ford, I examined Ford and noticed that between his thighs behind he was wet and slimy. About 1 o’clock when I gave the prisoner a drink of water he seemed perfectly conscious. I found Ford’s belt in the cell, between the 2 men.

[Signed] Lewis Griffiths. Taken and sworn before me at Newcastle the 16th day of April AD1877.
[Signed] Helenus Scott, PM.

5

    Michael Ryan—on his oath saith I am a Constable in the Police Force of New South Wales stationed at Newcastle. About 20 minutes to 2 o’clock yesterday morning I was on duty in Hunter Street. I was called upon by Senior Constable Griffiths to go to the lock up. He showed me a cell where the prisoner and a man named Ford were in. Ford was lying on his left side and appeared to be fast asleep. The prisoner also appeared to be fast asleep. Ford’s trousers were shoved down nearly to his knees and the lower part of his body naked. He was lying at Ford’s back as close as he could, his face to Ford’s back. I could see the prisoner’s person exposed, it was close to Ford’s backside. Senior Constable Griffiths rolled the prisoner away from Ford; his person then hung down. He stood up and put his person in and buttoned his trousers. Griffiths accused the prisoner of trying to commit

6

sodomy with Ford. The prisoner said “It’s only a drop of drink.” He was then placed in another cell by himself. I saw Griffiths examine Ford. I saw that Ford was wet in between the back of the thighs. I then went for Dr Harris. When the doctor and Griffiths pulled Ford about he did not stir, he seemed quite unconscious.

[Signed] M Ryan. Taken and sworn before me at Newcastle the 16th day of April AD1877.
[Signed] Helenus Scott, PM.

    Abraham Ford—on his oath saith I am a boiler maker and live in Bruce Street Newcastle. I was locked up some time on Saturday night. I don’t know what time it was. I must have been very drunk. It was about 6 or 7 o’clock on Sunday morning when I came to my senses, my trousers were all undone and my shirt hanging

7

out behind. I had no braces on only a belt. My belt was (missing ?) When I woke. I don’t remember seeing the prisoner before. The belt was given to me by Constable Griffiths this morning.

[Signed] Abraham Ford. Taken and sworn before me at Newcastle the 16th day of April AD1877.
[Signed] Helenus Scott, PM.

    The prisoner is remanded till tomorrow for further evidence of the doctor.

[Signed] Helenus Scott, PM.

    Richard Harris—on his oath saith I am a legally qualified Medical Practitioner residing and practising at Newcastle. On Sunday morning early I was called by the Police to visit the lock up. On proceeding to one of the cells

8

I saw a man lying on his left side in a helpless state of drunkenness and unconscious. I saw his trouser drawn down almost to his knees and his buttocks exposed. I examined his fundament and found that the skin surrounding it was greatly abraded but could not say whether penetration had been effected or not. I did not notice any wet between the man’s thighs. He was so helplessly drunk that he did not stir during the examination. I was then taken to another cell where the prisoner was confined, but so long a time being elapsed I could not detect anything. If there had been any wet between the man’s thighs when Constable Griffiths saw the man, it might have dried when I saw him.

[Signed] Richd Harris. Taken and sworn before me at Newcastle the 17th day of April AD 1877.
[Signed] Helenus Scott, PM.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

(N., 11 & 12 Vic., Cap. 42.)

Statement of the Accused.

PC:–77/400

New South Wales, Newcastle                                                                                              
TO WIT.                                }

Regina Versus Steele Attempt At Sodomy.

Thomas Steele stands charged before the undersigned one of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace in and for the Colony aforesaid, this 17th day of April in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy seven for that he, the said Thomas Steele on the 15th day of April now Instant at Newcastle, in the said Colony, did attempt to commit sodomy with one Abraham Ford of Newcastle on the 15th April Instant. And the examinations of all the witnesses on the part of the prosecution having been completed, and the depositions taken against the accused having been caused to be read to him by me, the said Justice (by/or) before whom such examination has been completed; and I, the said Justice, having also stated to the accused and given him clearly to understand that he has nothing to hope from any promise of favour, and nothing to fear from any threat which may have been holden out to him to induce him to make any admission or confession of his guilt, but that whatever he shall say may be given in evidence against him upon his trial, notwithstanding such promise or threat; and the said charge being read to the said Thomas Steele and the witnesses for the prosecution Lewis Griffiths of Newcastle Senior Constable, Michael Ryan of Newcastle Constable, Abraham Ford of Newcastle boiler maker, Richard Harris of Newcastle Doctor, being severally examined in his presence, the said Thomas Steele is now addressed by me as follows:—“Having heard the evidence, do you wish to say anything in answer to the charge? You are not obliged to say anything unless you desire to do so; but whatever you say will be taken down in writing, and may be given in evidence against you upon your trial;” whereupon the said Thomas Steele saith as follows:– —I do not recollect anything that occurred.”

[Signed] Thomas (his X mark) Steele. Taken before me, at Newcastle in the said Colony, the day and year first abovementioned.
[Signed] Helenus Scott, PM

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Thomas Steele

    The Prisoner is committed to take his trial at the next Circuit Court to be holden at Maitland on the 16th day of October next.

[Signed] Helenus Scott, PM

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

(O. 1 11 & 12 Vic., Cap. 42.)

Recognizance to give Evidence.

PC:–77/400

New South Wales, Newcastle
TO WIT.                                }

Regina Versus Thomas Steele attempting at sodomy.

Be it remembered, the on the 17th day of April in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy seven Lewis Griffiths a Senior Constable of the Police Force, stationed at Newcastle in the Colony of New South Wales, Michael Ryan of Newcastle Constable, Abraham Ford of Newcastle Boiler maker and Richard Harris Doctor of Newcastle in the Colony, personally came before the undersigned, one of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the Colony of New South Wales, and acknowledge themselves to owe our Sovereign Lady the Queen the sum of

FORTY POUNDS EACH,

of good and lawful money of Great Britain, to be made and levied on their goods and chattels, lands and tenements, to the use of our said Lady the Queen, her Heirs and Successors, if they the said before mentioned persons shall fail in the conditions indorsed. Taken and acknowledged, the day and year first abovementioned, at Newcastle in the said Colony, before me.

[Signed] Helenus Scott, PM

The condition of the within written recognizance is such, that whereas Thomas Steele was this day charged before Helenus Scott Esquire one of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the said Colony, with attempting to commit sodomy with one Abraham Ford of Newcastle on the 15th April Instant. If therefore, they the before mentioned persons shall appear at the next Court of Quarter Sessions Gaol Delivery to be holden at Maitland, in and for the Colony of New South Wales, on Tuesday the 16th day of October next, at 9 of the clock in the forenoon, and then and there give such evidence as they know, upon an information to be then and there preferred against the said Thomas Steele for the offence aforesaid, to the Jurors who shall pass upon the trial of the said Thomas Steele then the said Recognizance to be void, or else to stand in full force and virtue.

[Signed] Helenus Scott, PM

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

[The following is on the depositions’ cover sheet]

17th April 1877
No. 332
Depositions
Regina No. 3 v. Thomas Steele
Attempting to commit Sodomy
Circuit Court Maitland
16th October 1877
Attempting to commit sodomy
[Initialled] WBD [William Bede Dalley] AG 23/5/77
Newcastle

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Justice WM Manning’s Notebook 6

15

Maitland, October 16, 1877

No. 4. Regina v. Thos Steele
Attempt to commit sodomy 

    Lewis Griffiths Senior Constable WP [Water Police ?] Newcastle. I was in charge of lock-up at Newcastle on 14th-15th April that was my ordinary duty. I saw prisoner night of 14th about 8 o’clock brought in very drunk & was locked up. Another man named Ford was brought in at about 12 very drunk – worse than prisoner. Put him in same cell. About 1 am prisoner called for water. I gave it to him.

16

Ford then lying down clothes on all right at that time – not disarranged in any way then. Prisoner’s clothes also all right. He appeared then to be sensible enough.

    I visited the cell at about 2 am I saw Ford laying down – on left side with trousers down to his knees & prisoner lying on his side at Ford’s back close up & with his right arm across Ford’s body. Ford’s belt off. I saw his person close up to Ford’s back.

    Prisoner appeared to be asleep. Was not moving. I could not see his left hand. Prisoner’s person close up to Ford’s bottom. In a limpid state from what I could see.

    I said nothing but stayed to see whether he was gammoning asleep. Found he remained in same position.

17

  Called in constable. Found prisoner was asleep – rolled him over, accused him. Said it was (only ?) (the ?) drink. The other man still insensible. I examined his body & found he was all wet between his legs – like semen. I saw no appearance of any mark on the man.

    Did not awake Ford. Removed prisoner to another cell. Tolerably sensible. 5 hours in lock-up then. Had been asleep up till he called for water. The other man totally gone. I called in a doctor.

    Prisoner. I know nothing about the matter. (?) me to watch.

18

    Cross-examined by prisoner. I put you alone into cell. There were 6 cells, not all full. I put you into same cell. I usually do so – 3 or 4 – If there is one drunken man in I should put another drunkard with him & I should have put a third in if he came. I keep the all other cells for other prisoners. I have had 28 people in.

    (Prisoner imputes animosity) I have no animosity.

    (Prisoner – if you have not, somebody has who has put you up) I don’t remember what constable brought you in [for ?], or who brought in Ford. I believe you are a stranger in Newcastle. Had seen you in lock-up more than once before – for drunkenness – disorderly conduct on board your ship, & assaulting constable in execution of duty.

19

They “put me up to try to run you in.”

    Cross-examined by Healy. Not the slightest foundation for these imputations.

    Cross-examined by prisoner. I only thought you had been doing it. Did not see it.

    Michael Ryan. Constable: Newcastle. 15th April Griffiths called me in to cell.

    I saw Ford lying on his left side with his knees up – trousers down, shirt up. Prisoner lying on his side at back of Ford as close as he could be with his person exposed close up to Ford’s backside. Slack

20

when Griffiths rolled him back – his person hung down slack. I was the constable who gave the prisoner in charge. The prisoner appeared to me stupid from drink. He said oh it’s the drop of drink when Griffiths charged him. Saw Griffiths examine Ford. Appeared to be all wet between the cheeks of the backside – Did not examine. I went for Dr Harris, who examined Ford.

    Cross-examined by prisoner. I was outside of the Court when first witness given.

    (Prisoner: you were inside & were tutored to give this evidence) I was not inside but outside. When I took you there was blood on your face.

    You were turned out of a public house for being drunk, disorderly, & fighting.

21

You did not complain of your arm.

    Prisoner again imputes perjury.

    Abraham Ford. Boiler maker, Newcastle. On Sunday morning 15th I remember being locked up. The day before I had trousers coat & belt. When I awoke my trousers were all down about my legs. Between 6 & 7 am. There was another man in when I awoke – not prisoner. Never saw prisoner. I don’t know of Dr Harris examining me.

    Prisoner asks no questions.

22

    Richard Harris. Legally qualified M [Medical] Practitioner. 15th April I was called in to examine a man who was lying helplessly drunk on floor of cell. Buttocks exposed. The anus unnaturally wet. Could not judge what the wet was by candle-light. No marks on the skin. I examined the prisoner. Nothing to form any judgement for this will have been at least ½ an hour after the event. If the moisture were semen, would have greatly did dried. I call it more moisture.

    Cross-examined by prisoner. I saw nothing on you to lead to the suspicion. Prisoner was very drunk when I examined him.

    Prisoner to the Jury. Was beaten about the head,

23

bruised – arm dislocated. Do you think I was able to do the thing? This man might have been up & taken his trousers down & not be able to get them up again.

Verdict
Guilty. 
9 months Mait Maitland Berrima Gaol HL 7
A month’s sentence once before for assault.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, Sat 13 Oct 1877 8

MAITLAND CIRCUIT COURT.
————

    The Maitland Circuit Court opens at East Maitland on Tuesday next at 10 am, before his Honor Sir William Manning. The following is a list of cases in which the accused are in custody:—

    James Collins, stealing from the person; Newcastle bench.
    Alick Quartro, ditto; Newcastle bench.
    Thomas Smith, forging and uttering; West Maitland bench.
    Nancy Phillips, passing valueless coin; Dungog bench.
    John Samuel Warby, breaking and entering; East Maitland bench.
    David Detmold, larceny, East Maitland bench.
    John Duggan, larceny, Newcastle bench.
    Frank Redman, attempt at sodomy, Newcastle bench (postponed from last sittings).
    Elizabeth Perry, infanticide, Newcastle.
    Thomas Steele, attempt at sodomy, Newcastle.
    Alexander McLean, forging and uttering, East Maitland bench.
    Alexander McLean, false pretences, Newcastle bench (thee cases.)

    There are several cases in which the accused are admitted to bail, but we were unable to obtain a complete list in time for this publication.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, Wed 17 Oct 1877 9

MAITLAND CIRCUIT COURT.

THE CIRCUIT COURT was opened yesterday, at East Maitland, before his Honor Sir William Manning.
    Mr Hesley prosecuted on behalf of the Crown.
    The bar was represented by Messrs Wisdom, Cansdell, Solling, Wallace, Young, Richardson, Thompson and Readsit.

UNNATURAL OFFENCE.

    Thomas Steele was charged with attempting to commit an unnatural offence, at Newcastle, on the 16th April. The locale was the lock-up. The evidence having been given, and summed up by his Honor, the jury found the prisoner guilt. Sentence deferred.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, Thu 18 Oct 1877 10

MAITLAND CIRCUIT COURT.

    The criminal side of the Maitland Circuit Court commenced its sittings at East Maitland, on Tuesday [16 October], before his Honor Sir William Manning. Clerk of Arraigns, Mr C Burns. Sheriff’s Deputy, Mr Addison, PM. The barristers in attendance were Messrs PJ Healy  (Crown Prosecutor), R Wisdom, WC Windeyer, and Cansdell.

    The Clerk of Arraigns read the usual proclamation against vice, immorality, and Crime. Mr Healy handed in his appointment as Crown Prosecutor.

    The jury were then called, and one or two excused for different causes.

UNNATURAL OFFENCE.

    Thomas Steele was indicted for that he did, at Newcastle, on the 15th of April last, attempted to commit an unnatural offence on a man named Abraham Ford.

    The Crown Prosecutor opened the case to the jury, and called the following witnesses: Senior constable Griffiths, constable Ryan, Abraham Ford, and Dr Richard Harris.

    The evidence was that the prisoner was put into a cell at the Newcastle lock-up on a charge of drunkenness; five hours afterwards Ford was placed in the same cell, both of the men were drunk. At twelve o’clock one of the constables took the prisoner a drink, and both of the prisoners were alright. About an hour after the constable again looked into the cell, and saw them in an indecent position, and according to the evidence of the constable other evidence were visible of the attempt to commit the offence with which he was charged.

    The prisoner stated that he had his head bruised, his arm was dislocated, and it was not likely he would have attempted such a crime.

    His Honor summed up.
    The jury, after a short deliberation, returned into court with a verdict of guilty.
    Prisoner remanded for sentence.

MAITLAND CIRCUIT COURT.
————
(Continued from another page.)

WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 17.

    The Court re-opened at ten o’clock. In addition to the members of the bar, already mentioned, Mr HE Cohen and Mr O’Keefe were also in attendance.

SENTENCES.

    Thomas Steele, who had been found guilty of an attempt to commit an unnatural offence was then brought up for sentence. He said he had nothing to say why the sentence of the court should not be passed upon him. His Honor said he would take into account that he had been in gaol six months. He had intended to give him twelve months, but he would knock off three and make it nine months hard labour in Maitland gaol.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Thomas Steele, Gaol photo sheet template 11 

 

SRNSW: NRS2327, [3/5983a] , Maitland Gaol photographic description book, 1875-1930, No. 99, p. 89, R5129.

 

 


Gaol Photo Sheet - Transcribed Details

No. 99

Date when Portrait was taken: 21st October 1877

Name: Thomas Steele

Native place: Scotland

Year of birth: 1831

Arrived        Ship: West Australian
in Colony }   Year: 1877

Trade or occupation
previous to conviction  } Sailor

Religion: C of England

Education, degree of: R&W

Colour of hair: Dark

Colour of eyes: Hazel

Height: 5' 7½"

Weight     On committal: 
in lbs     }  On discharge: 

Marks or special features: Ship in full sail & light house on right arm. Anchor and star left arm

Where and when tried: Maitland C Court
16th October 1877

Offence: Attempt to commit Sodomy

Sentence: 9 months hard labour (?)

Remarks:

 (No. of Previous Portrait ...  ) 

PREVIOUS CONVICTIONS

Where and When Offence. Sentence

 Newcastle Police Office

 3

 1877

Assault

 1 month imprisonment 

 


1    Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, Tue 6 Mar 1877, p. 2.

2    Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, Wed 7 Mar 1877, p. 2.

3    Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, Tue 17 Apr 1877, p. 3.

4    Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, Wed 18 Apr 1877, p. 2.

5    SRNSW: NRS880, [9/6612], Supreme Court, Papers and depositions, Maitland, 1877, No. 332. Emphasis added.

6    SRNSW: NRS7343, [2/6025], Judiciary, WM Manning, J. Notebooks Circuit Courts, 1872-80, p. 15-23. Emphasis added.

7    Mn: Already 6 months in gaol

8    The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, Sat 13 Oct 1877, p. 4. Emphasis added.

9    Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, Wed 17 Oct 1877, p. 2.

10  The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, Thu 18 Oct 1877, pp. 3, 4.

11  SRNSW: NRS2327, [3/5983a], Maitland Gaol photographic description book, 1875-1930, No. 99, p. 89, R5129.