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The Brisbane Courier, Mon 8 Sep 1930 1

MALTESE ARRESTED.
————

Casino, September 7.

    Excitement was caused at Casino yesterday afternoon, when the police rounded up a number of Maltese, the majority of whom were railway workers, and who had been at Grady’s Creek Gap. The police took 20 of them to the watchhouse, and eight men were charged with vagrancy. More serious charges may be preferred against the Maltese.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Richmond River Express, Tue 9 Sep 1930 2

LOCAL INTEREST
————
SERIOUS CHARGES

    In the Children’s Court at Casino today, before Mr E[dward] A[ugustus] Mahony, PM., Frank Guech, a Maltese, was charged with a serious offence on a youth. He was committed to stand his trial at the Circuit Court at Lismore on September 24 on bail of £200. Joe Galea was charged with a similar offence, and after evidence had been given he was discharged.

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Casino and Kyogle Courier and North Coast Advertiser, Wed 10 Sep 1930 3

MALTESE ARRESTED.
————
ABOMINABLE OFFENCES ALLEGED.
————
WHITE BOYS INVOLVED.

    There was much excitement in Casino on Saturday morning when the police, from different parts of the town, took to the lockup 20 Maltese, who were lined up for identification, after the police had received certain information, in which allegations of abominable conduct on the part of the Maltese were made. Two local boys made these allegations, and they identified seven Maltese, who were arrested, and an eighth Maltese was taken into custody on Sunday.

    On Monday these men, Joe Galea, Joe Schembera, Jim Borg, Grezio Attard, Frank Galea, Jack Zureh and Frank Bork were charged with having committed an abominable and unnatural offence on the lads, and also with indecent assault on a male person.

    In remanding the men until yesterday morning Mr C[hristopher] J[ames] M[atthew] Hade (Chamber Magistrate) remarked:– “In remanding these defendants, I think it is now opportune to say at this early stage that you, Sergeant [Alexander John] McIntosh, and your officers who have participated in this work, and if these charges are well founded, have gained the commendation of the people bringing to light and to justice these defendants who are alleged to have committed these atrocious, abominable and revolting crimes.”

    When the defendants were charged before Mr EA Mahoney yesterday, Mr JJ Kissane appeared for them.

    The majority of cases were heard with closed doors, as one of the boys was under age.

    Evidence was heard in the case against Galea, and he was discharged, but was immediately re-arrested on a charge of vagrancy.

    Frank Grech was committed for trial to the Lismore Circuit Court on September 24 on a charge relating to a third boy. Bail was allowed, self in £200 and one surety of £200 or two of £100 each.

    After evidence had been given against Jim Borg, Frank Galea and Jack Xureh they were committed for trial. Bail was allowed, self in £200 and one surety of £200, or two of £100 each.

    The other defendants were remanded until Tuesday next.

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The Richmond River Express, Wed 10 Sep 1930 4

LOCAL INTEREST
————

COMMITTED FOR TRIAL

    In the Children’s Court at Casino yesterday, before Mr EA Mahoney, PM., Jim Borg, Frank Galea and Jack Fureh, Maltese, were committed for trial at the Circuit Court sittings at Lismore on September 24, on serious charges against a male person. Bail in each case was fixed at £200. Four other Maltese were remanded on similar charges until Tuesday next.

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The Sydney Morning Herald, Thu 11 Sep 1930 5

CHARGES AGAINST MALTESE.
———◦———

Casino, Wednesday.

    A raid on Maltese who were camped about Casino had a sequel in the police court, when nine Maltese were charged with having committed unnatural offences. Those charged were:—Joe Galea, Joe Gschembera, Jim Borg, Grezio Attard, Frank Galea, Jack Xureh, Frank Borg, Frank Grech, and Sam Zhra. The men were remanded by the chamber magistrate (Mr CJM Hade), pending a hearing of the charges by a police magistrate. Later Frank Grech, Jim Borg, Frank Galea, and Jack Xureh, were committed for trial by the police magistrate, Joe Galea was discharged. The other defendants were remanded for a week.

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Barrier Miner, Fri 12 Sep 1930 6

RAID ON MALTESE
———◦———
NINE IN POLICE COURT
———

Casino, Wednesday.

    A raid on Maltese who were camped about Casino had a sequel in the police court, when nine Maltese were charged with having committed unnatural offences. Those charged were: Joe Galea, Joe Gschembera, Jim Borg, Grezio Attard, Frank Galea, Jack Xureh, Frank Borg, Frank Grech, and Sam Zhra. The men were remanded by the chamber magistrate, Mr CJM Hade, pending a hearing of the charges by a police magistrate. Later Frank Grech, Jim Borg, Frank Galea, and Jack Xureh, were committed for trial by the police magistrate, Joe Galea was discharged. The other defendants were remanded for a week.

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Casino and Kyogle Courier and North Coast Advertiser, Sat 13 Sep 1930 7

LOCAL AND GENERAL
———◦———

POLICE RECORD.

    As far as a clean-up of crime and police offences are concerned, Casino police this year will create a new record for the North Coast. There have been many serious cases since the beginning of the year, some of the offenders receiving heavy sentences. Within the short space of eleven days, the police have handled no fewer than 72 cases. On top of this there were summons cases issued by private persons.

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Truth, Sun 14 Sep 1930 8

REVOLTING ALLEGATIONS
OF YOUNG BOYS
———◦———
Say Casino Maltese Lured Them to
Huts on River Bank
————
POLICE RAID SENDS FOUR FOR TRIAL

(From “Truth’s” Casino Representative.)

CASINO police moved quickly and effectively last week when they received information from three young boys concerning certain Maltese who inhabit the town.

They raided and rounded up a score or more of the dusky gentlemen, and as a result of a subsequent line-up, nine of the Maltese were arrested and faced charges of a most revolting nature.

    On Monday last they were formally charged with the alleged offences, and remanded until the following day, when four of them were sent for trial, whilst cases against the others were adjourned for a week.

    Added to the charge of having assaulted three boys, there was also a count against the Maltese that they did indecently assault a male person.

    The lads are all local boys. One is sixteen years of age, one a little younger, and the third 20. They told a story of atrocious and abominable details concerning happenings that they alleged took place in huts in the river bank.

    The Maltese charged were Joe Galea, Joe Gschembera, Jim Borg, Grezio Attard, Frank Galea, Jack Xureb, Sam Zhra, Frank Borg and Frank Grech.

    The last named was sent for trial for indecently assaulting a youth and Jim Borg, Frank Galea and Jack Xureb also went for trial on similar charges. The remaining three were charged in respect of one boy, one of two brothers, concerned in the matter. Joe Galea was discharged, but promptly re-arrested on a charge of vagrancy.

    When the magistrate, Mr CJM Hade remanded the man on the Monday morning, he passed some very strong remarks. Addressing Sergeant McIntosh, he said:

    “In remanding these defendants, I think it is not inopportune to say at this early stage that you, sergeant, and your officers who have participated in this work, and if these charges are well founded, have gained the commendation of the people in bringing to the light of justice these defendants who are alleged to have committed these atrocious, abominable and revolting crimes.”

    When the Maltese were charged on Tuesday the cases concerning the boys who were under age, were taken first.

TWO SHILLINGS

    The sixteen-years-old lad told how he met one of the Maltese who took him to the river bank, where he alleged the offence took place; the Maltese gave him two shillings.
 

  The same lad related meeting another Maltese who took him into a park convenience, where he interfered with his clothing. This happened, he said, in day-light and the Maltese gave him a shilling.

    When accused of a smaller offence on the lad, Xureb, who was committed for trial, said that the lad asked for another Maltese. They entered the shed at the rear of a business premises, and there the Maltese claimed that the lad accepted sixpence, and committed an act of extreme indecency.

    Another of the Maltese, Jim Borg, the lad claimed, gave him 2/- to do something.

SHOOT HIM

    The boy later claimed that when confronted by another Maltese, he had gone with him and had agreed to a revolting act. He received fivepence.

    The elder of the two brothers is alleged to have made a statement to the effect that a Maltese took him to the park and interfered with him, warning him that if he “pimped” he would shoot him and cut his head with a razor.

    Throughout their stories, the lads referred to most revolting incidents.

    The whole affair caused a sensation in the town, more so among the Maltese inhabitants, of whom there are dozens, and Monday morning saw an exodus of them on the train bound for the south.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Casino and Kyogle Courier and North Coast Advertiser, Wed 17 Sep 1930 9

MALTESE CHARGED
————
ALLEGED UNNATURAL OFFENCES.
————
WHITE BOYS INVOLVED.
————

    A further instalment in the serious charges against a number of Maltese concerning the alleged interference with white boys was tendered in the Police and Children’s Court yesterday, before Mr EA Mahoney, PM. Joe Schembera, Grezio Attard, and Frank Borg were charged with having committed offences against the order of nature, and with having indecently dealt with the boys. Sam Zhra was charged with indecent assault. Sergt McIntosh prosecuted, and Mr JJ Kissane appeared for the defendants.

    After hearing the evidence against Grezio Attard, the PM said there was insufficient evidence to send the defendant for trial, and he was discharged. Attard was immediately re-arrested and charged with vagrancy.

    Sam Zhra was also sent for trial.

    In the Police Court, Joe Schembera was charged with having unlawfully assaulted Alexander John McMillan and with having committed an abominable offence.

    Constable W[illie] Fleming said that on September 6 nineteen Maltese were brought to the lockup. Sergeant McIntosh said, “You are here for identification, as certain complaints have been made against Maltese.” McMillan was brought into the yard, and Sergt. McIntosh said, “Have a look along this line of men and place your hand on any of the men you have complained have been interfering with you.” McMillan placed his hand on defendant. Asked why he picked Schembera, McMillan said he (defendant) was the man who interfered with his clothing and did something to him. Schembera gave him a few bob, said McMillan. The latter added that he accompanied defendant to the park. There defendant said, “If you pimp on me I will shoot you and cut your head off with a razor.” Schembera said, “I had nothing to do with him; how can he prove it? Last Saturday night I was in Lismore. I have witnesses—Mrs Jack Howard, Fred and Cherry. I came back last Monday morning. I prove it for that.”

    Mr Kissane (for defendant): Was a statement in writing given by this boy?—No.

    You took a statement previously from him?—Yes.

    Alexander John McMillan, a youth, said he had complained of certain happenings with the Maltese. He identified Schembera, who had interfered with him. The first occasion anything happened was about three weeks ago, one Saturday night, after the pictures. Defendant said, “What about coming over to the river bank?” Witness said, “No,” and defendant said, “You had better come over to the park with me.” Witness did, and then described what happened. He stayed with defendant all night, because he would not let him go. Schembera gave him 2/-. Defendant said, “If you pimp on me I’ll shoot you next time I come out.” Witness knew defendant, who was known as “Speero.”

    To Mr Kissane: He was 20 years of age, and had gone to school for fourteen months. He did not know what time of the year Christmas came. There were twelve days in a week and seven months in a year. In a fortnight there were twelve months. He could not tell the time. He did not know that his bother was going with some of the Maltese.

    You know what you did in the park was wrong?—Yes.

    Did you know that the police might take him?—Yes.

    Was that the first time in your life that anything like that happened to you?—Yes.

    What is the difference between a quarter of an hour and half an hour?—Two hours.

    Is he the only man who did this thing to you?—No; another man, too.

    Were you willing that he should do this to you?—I tried to stop him.

    Why did you let him?—He was too strong for me.

    Did you tell the police about what happened when you saw the police on the way home?—No; I was frightened he would shoot me.

    Did you know defendant?—Yes; at Grady’s Creek.

    Did he ever do anything to you there?—No.

    Did “Kid” ever do anything at Grady’s Creek?—No.

    Did “Kid” ever do anything to you here?—Yes.

    Dr W[illiam] A[lexander] Standish said he had examined McMillan, who was suffering from a urethal [sic] discharge, probably disease. He took a swab of this, but the result was not yet known. The lad’s mental condition was poor. His examination showed signs that were consistent with unnatural interference. A person suffering from a disease could convey it to another by such contact.

    Mr Kissane submitted that there was no evidence to send to a jury. McMillan’s statement to the police conflicted with his evidence in the box.

    The PM: He is obviously a lad of low mentality.

    Mr Kissane: Quite so. But the liberty of the man is at stake. Schembera denied at the start that he was here. Obviously this lad has been leading this sort of life, but he cannot give us time and place.

    The PM: I do not think any jury would convict defendant on witness’ evidence. These papers can be sent to the Justice Department, and if the Attorney-General thinks there is sufficient evidence he can put him on his trial.

    Frank Borg had a similar charge preferred against him. Then the charge was read he answered, “No, sir.”

    Dr WA Standish gave similar evidence to that given in the previous case. He said he examined defendant, who had a slight urethal discharge, which was possibly due to gleet. t would be possible for another male person coming into contact with another to convey the disease. He had taken a swab from defendant.

    Mr Kissane: Have you formed the opinion that the boy is suffering from disease?—Yes, positive.

    You came to that conclusion from an examination of the boy’s person?—Yes.

    Did the boy tell you anything that would account for him having the disease?—No.

    Did any answers given by the boy indicate whom he might have contracted the disease?—No.

    Constable [Willie] Fleming said that at 4 pm on September 7 defendant was brought to the lockup and was identified by McMillan. McIntosh said to McMillan, “What reason have you for identifying this man?” McMillan said, “He did something to me down the back. I saw him near the billiard room and said, “What about coming around the back?” I asked him where, and he said, “Behind the billiard room.” Defendant said, “What about disarranging your clothes?” Witness declined, and defendant said “Here is 2/-; what about -----?” Defendant said, “If you don’t put your ----- head down -----.” The lad then described what occurred and said that he had not met defendant before that date at the rear of the hotel, where something happened in the yard. Borg, said McMillan, said, “If you pimp on me I will shoot you and cut your head off with a razor.” Sergeant McIntosh said to Borg, “Do you wish to say anything?” Borg said, “It is all lies, and I want a doctor to examine him and me. If I done it I will pay for it; if I didn’t do it I will not for it.”

    The lad [Alexander John McMillan] giving evidence, said he once resided near the Royal Hotel, and had complained about the Maltese. Borg had interfered with him. He knew Borg at Grady’s Creek as “The Kid.” In the street in Casino Borg made a suggestion to him and he replied, “What do you think I am, a man or a -----?” Borg said, “Don’t be mad.” Defendant interfered with witness’ clothing and committed an offence. He then caught witness by the head and forced him to commit an act of extreme indecency. Borg then threatened to shoot him, kick his ---- in, and cut his head off if he pimped. Another night Borg called him and they entered a building where Borg made an indecent suggestion to him and forced him to comply.

    Sgt McIntosh: The doctor is treating you for something. How did you get that?—Off the “The Kid” (Borg.)

    Mr Kissane (for defendant): “The Kid” did nothing to me at Grady’s Creek; the first time was in Casino. Two acts of indecency occurred in Casino at the rear of the billiard room, and one behind the Royal Hotel.

    Mr Kissane submitted that there was no case.

    The PM: I am inclined to send him for trial. Borg, you are committed for trial to the sittings of the Supreme Court at Lismore on September 24. Bail was allowed, self in £200 and one surety of £200.

    A charge of vagrancy against McMillan was adjourned for a month.

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The Richmond River Express, Wed 17 Sep 1930 10

LOCAL INTEREST
————

COMMITTED FOR TRIAL

    After evidence had been concluded in the Casino Police Court yesterday, before Mr EA Mahoney, PM., in the charges against Frank Borg, a Maltese, of having unlawfully assaulted a male person, and with committing an offence against the order of nature, the defendant was committed for trial at the Lismore Circuit Court on September 24, on bail of £200.

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The Sydney Morning Herald, Thu 18 Sep 1930 11

COUNTRY NEWS.
———◦———

MALTESE COMMITTED FOR TRIAL.

Casino, Wednesday.

    Arising out of the arrest of nine Maltese here, following allegations of assaults on boys, two more Maltese, Frank Borg and Sam Zhra, were committed for trial. Two others, Joe Gsyhemy and Grezio Attard, were discharged.

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Truth, Sun 21 Sep 1930 12

TERRIBLE ALLEGATIONS
————————
OF MALTESE DEPRAVITY
———◦———
White Lad Shows Amazing Ignorance
in Witness Box

(From “Truth’s” Casino Representative.)

    ONCE again last week the story of revolting depravity alleged by young white boys against four Maltese residents rocked the town of Casino.

    ONE boy, twenty years of age, displayed an amazing lack of intelligence when he told of shocking excesses that he stated had taken place in the park. And at the conclusion of the hearing, two Maltese, Sam Zhra and Frank Borg, were committed for trial, while Grezio Attard and Joe Gschembera were discharged.

    The case was heard in the Casino Police Court on Tuesday afternoon, when the four more Maltese were arraigned on charges based on the allegations of two boys, aged 16 and 20 years, that the Maltese had been guilty of abominable acts.

    Joe Gschembera, Grezio Attard and Frank Borg were charged with unnatural offences and Sam Zhra with indecent assault.

    Sam Zhra and Frank Borg were sent for trial, while the charges against Grezio Attard and Joe Gschembera were dismissed, but the magistrate stated that the papers would be sent on to the Attorney-General for perusal.

    Two of the cases were heard in the Children’s Court and two in open court.

PICKED HIM OUT

    in the charge against Joe Gschembera, Constable Fleming related that it was after the boy of 20 had told the police something that Gschembera was interrogated.

    The boy picked the Maltese out of a group of nineteen and said that he was one of the men who gave him 2s.

    “If you pimp on me I will shoot you and cut your head off with a razor,” the boy alleged that Gschembera said to him after the incident.

    When charged Gschembera stated that he was in Lismore on the date of the alleged offence and could prove his presence there by Mrs Jack Howard, Frank and Cherry, added Constable Fleming.

    When the boy took the witness-stand Sergeant McIntosh questioned him closely about the nature on an oath, and the lad said he knew that the Bible was God’s book and that he would go to hell if he did not tell the truth.

    Although 20 years of age, he displayed the mentality of a lad of five or six years.

    He said that Gschembera spoke to him after the pictures. The lad declined to go to the park. Gschembera said, “You had better come over with me.”

    He remained with Gschembera all night, because he would not let him go. Gschembera gave him 2/-.

    Mr Kissane (for defendant): Did you ever go to school?—Yes, for fourteen months.

    What time of the year does Christmas fall?—I don’t know.

    How many days are there in a week?—Twelve.

    And how many months in a year?—Seven.

    How days in a fortnight?—Twelve.

    Can you tell the time?—No.

    Did you know that your brother was going with the Maltese?—No.

ANOTHER MAN

    You know that what you did in the park was wrong?—Yes.

    You saw the police when you were going home—why didn’t you tell them what happened?—I was too frightened that he would shoot me.

    You knew him before?—Yes, at Grady’s Creek.

    Did he ever do anything to you there?—No.

    Did “The Kid” (Frank Borg) ever do anything to you there?—No.

    Did “The Kid” ever do anything to you here?—Yes.

    Dr WA Standish, Government Medical Officer, Casino, said he examined the boy and found that he was suffering from a complaint.

    His examination revealed signs consistent with interference. The lad’s mental condition was very poor.

    Mr Kissane contended that there was no corroboration, and that the lad could only give vague answers as to times. He referred to the statement made by the lad to the police, and said it conflicted with the evidence given by the boy.

    The PM: He is obviously a lad of low mentality.

    Mr Kissane: Quite so, but a man’s liberty is at stake on his allegations Gschembera denied at the start that he was in Casino at the time alleged by the lad. Obviously this lad has been leading this sort of life, but he cannot give us time and place at all clearly.

    The PM: I do not think any jury would convict on the evidence. These papers can be sent to the Justice Department, and if the Attorney-General thinks there is sufficient evidence, he can proceed.

    Gschembera was then discharged.

    When charged, Frank Borg, known as “The Kid,” said, No, sir.”

    Dr Standish detailed the result of his examination of the boy, and said he had also examined Borg, who had a complaint.

    Mr Kissane: Have you formed an opinion that the boy is suffering from a disease?—Yes, positively.

    You came to that conclusion from an examination?—Yes.

    Constable Fleming said that when he identified Borg the boy said, “I met this man.”

    The constable then related a certain proposition which the boy alleged was made to him.

    When asked if he had anything to say in reply to the boy’s allegations, Borg, added Constable Fleming, said “It is all lies, and I want a doctor to examine him and me. If I done it I will pay for it; if I didn’t do it I will not pay for it.”

    The boy then related certain alleged happenings. Prior to that he knew Borg as “The Kid.” That was at Grady’s Creek.

    Another night, in the street, “The Kid” called him over and made improper overtures. Witness did not want to go, but finally accompanied Borg. Borg made suggestion to him.

    The boy then went on to describe another abominable deed.

    “Borg,” added the boy, “then told me that if I pimped he would shoot me and kick my —– in, and cut my head off with a razor.”

    On another night Borg called him into a building and again forced him to do something.

    Sergeant McIntosh: The doctor is treating you for something? How did you get that?—Off “The Kid” (Borg).

    Mr Kissane: Did “The Kid” ever do anything to you at Grady’s Creek?—No.

    The first time was in Casino?—Yes.

    Where?—The witness then gave details.

    Mr Kissane (to PM Mahoney): I again submit that there is no case.

    The PM: I am inclined to send him for trial.

    Borg was committed to stand his trial at the Supreme Court at Lismore on September 24. Bail was allowed, self in £200 and a surety of a like amount.

    Zhra, charged with indecent assault, was also committed for trial. His bail of £200 was not forthcoming.

    The two boys were held on vagrancy charges and were remanded on their father’s security for a month.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Northern Star and Richmond and Tweed Rivers Advocate, Wed 24 Sep 1930 13

GENERAL NEWS
————
TOWN AND DISTRICT MATTERS
————
LISMORE CIRCUIT COURT

    The following cases are listed for hearing before Mr Justice Halse Rogers at the Lismore Circuit Court which commences at 10 am to-day: Rex v. Walter Harold Donnelly, charged with a serious offence; Thomas Jackson, charged with larceny; Frank Borg, Jim Borg, Frank Galea, Frank Gretch, Sam Zahri, Jack Xuereb, each charged with a serious offence.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Depositions for Frank Galea 26 Sep 1930 Lismore trial 14

NEW SOUTH WALES POLICE.

North Coast District,

Casino Station,
20th September 1930.

Report relevant to antecedents of:–

Name: Frank Galea (48)
Offence: Buggery
Committed for Trial at: Lismore Circuit Court
Date: 24th September 1930

    Sergeant 1st Class McIntosh reports:– That accused is a single man, born in Malta and landed in Sydney in 1913, date and name of boat not known. Generally works on railway construction works and road works, was employed in and around Sydney for four years, Burrenjuck three years, Dorrigo three years, Guyra two years and Kyogle three years. He has been in this district for the past three months and has always been in the company of other Maltese, five of whom have been committed for trial on the same charge and three after the hearing of evidence were discharged.

    Finger prints have been taken and forwarded to the Commissioner of Police, Fingerprint Branch and the result has been returned as not known.

[Signed] SL McIntosh, Sergeant 1st Class.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

 



Petty Sessions Office, Casino

10th September 1930.

(a) Name in full of accused.

Rex v(a) Frank Galea

(b) Offence.

(b) Sodomy

(c) “Supreme Court,” or “Quarter Sessions.”

Depositions and the other Documents in the case of the above named accused who has been committed to take his trial at the (c) Circuit Court of

to be held at Lismore on Wednesday the 24th day of September 1930

are forwarded under separate cover

(d) “Is confined in the Gaol at …,” or “has been admitted to bail” (with full particulars as to sureties, addresses, occupations, and amounts, as set out in Recognisance.)

The accused is (d) confined in the Gaol at Grafton

(e) As in Recognizance, both for Crown and defence, specifying also what witnesses gave evidence but were not bound over, with reason for omission.

The Witnesses bound over are (e) Willie Fleming of Casino Police Constable, William Rodney McMillan of Sth Casino, John McMillan of Sth Casino Labourer and William Alexander Standish of Casino Medical practitioner

(f) Short description to enable identification.

The Exhibits enclosed are (f) Nil

 

[Signed] C[hristopher] J[ames] M[atthew] Hade
Clerk of Petty Sessions

The Under Secretary of Justice.

N.B.– When a Police Constable acts as Clerk of Petty Sessions, this letter should be signed by one of the Committing Magistrates

April, 1920

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

RECORD OF EXHIBITS.

Rex versus Galea

Distinguishing Letter or Number.

Description of Exhibit.

In whose custody or how disposed of.

 

Nil

 

[Signed] RV Carroll

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

(Charge) Case No. 575 of 1930.

Clerk of Petty Sessions, Casino
8th September 1930.

    Frank Galea (age 46) is charged for that on or about the thirtieth day of August 1930, he did at Casino in the State of New South Wales, assault one William Rodney McMillan and then wickedly and against the order of nature carnally knew the said William Rodney McMillan and did commit with the said William Rodney McMillan the abominable crime of buggery.

Pleads -----

Remanded to 9/9/30. Bail not applied for.

[Signed] CJM Hade.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Depositions of Witnesses.
(To accompany all cases of Committal for Trial.)

State of New South Wales,
TO WIT.                                 }

The examination of Willie Fleming of Casino in the said State, Police Constable William Rodney McMillan of South Casino and John McMillan of South Casino, labourer and a Deposition be Dr Standish taken in previous cases (dismissed, allowed in this case) taken on oath in the said State this 9th day of September 1930, at the Casino Police Court, in the said State, before the undersigned, one of His Majesty’s Justices of the Peace in and for the said State, in the presence and hearing of Frank Galea (hereinafter called the accused) who [was] charged before me for that he the said accused on or about the thirtieth day of August in the year of Our Lord one thousand nine hundred and thirty at Casino in the said State, did assault one William Rodney McMillan and then wickedly and against the order of nature carnally knew the said William Rodney McMillan and did commit with the said William Rodney McMillan the abominable crime of buggery. [For Police Court newspaper coverage see p. 6150, 6163, 6197, 6210, 6253, 6267].

1

Casino, Main Street, Oct 1939. Image: NSW State Library collection. Reproduction: Peter de Waal
Casino, Main Street, Oct 1939. Image: NSW State Library collection.
Reproduction: Peter de Waal

[Case] 575

    This Deponent sworn states, my name is Willie Fleming. I am a Police Constable stationed at Casino.

    At 11 am on the 6th instant nineteen Maltese were placed in the exercise yard of the Casino lock up. They were lined up. Sergeant McIntosh said to them “You are called in here for the purpose of identification as complaints have been received. You can place yourself in any position in the line which you think fit.” This they did. William Rodney McMillan was brought into the exercise yard and Sergeant McIntosh said to him “I want you to look along this line of men and if you see any of the men that you have complained about interfering with you I want you to go up and put your hand on their shoulder. McMillan walked along the line of men and placed his hand on the right hand shoulder of accused and several other men. These were brought out of the line. Sergeant McIntosh confronted McMillan with accused and said to accused “I am going to ask you certain questions. You needn’t answer them unless you wish but whatever you do say will be taken down in writing and given in evidence.” I also took notes in the book a book where certain questions were asked by Sergeant McIntosh to accused and McMillan. Sergeant McIntosh to McMillan “You identified this man and said he did something to you. What did he do?” Answer, “He asked me to take my trousers down in the Park Lavatory and he took his trousers down and he did it.” Question “What did he do?” Answer “He put it up my arse.” Question “Up where?” Answer “Up my behind.” Q “How many times did he so that to you?” Answer “Once.” Q. “Did he give you anything?” Answer “1/-.” To accused “You heard what this boy said to you.” Answer “I don’t understand.” Peter Fenech interpreter was called by Sergeant McIntosh and having said to him what McMillan had said the interpreter spoke to Galea in the Maltese language and after he had finished interpreter said to Sergeant “This man (pointing to Galea) wants to say, this man (pointing to McMillan) asked him to do it and he done it.”

2

[Case] 575

Accused was then charged as he now stands charged and made no reply.

    To Mr Kissane: I took a statement from McMillan in writing. I spoke to McMillan on another occasion prior to that. After taking the written statement I did not speak to him again about the case. The Sergeant told McMillan in front of all the men what was going to take place in the yard. On the first occasions McMillan spoke he mentioned two nick-names and said there were several others who had done this thing to him. The Police then made certain enquiries.

[Signed] W Fleming.

Taken and sworn at Casino, this 9th day of September 1930 before.
[Signed] E[dward] A[ugustus] Mahony, SPM.

3

[Case] 575

    (At this stage Mr Kissane consents to the doctor’s evidence given in the previous case being applied to this as evidence against the accused) (Herewith marked X)

    William Rodney McMillan having made the prescribed legal promise says. I am sixteen years old. I reside with my parents at South Casino. I made complaints to the Police about certain persons interfering with me. Accused is one of those men. He interfered with me down by the side of the rive bank near the picture palace. He interfered with me once. I don’t know the date I think it was Monday night. He took off my pants. I saw him first at the picture palace and he walked past me. He gave me a sign with his hand. He walked down the bank first and I followed.

    I took of my pants lifted my shirt up and lay down. He then put his prick in my behind. He gave me 1/-. That was the first and last time anything that happened with him. That was on the other side of the river. It was since we went to live on the other side of the river.

    To Mr Kissane: The pictures had commenced when accused came along and made the sign to me. I had never seen that man before in my life I didn’t know who he was. I walked down the bank of the river underneath a tree. It would be about the length of the court room from where I was standing at the pictures to where I went with the man. He then did this thing to me. I never saw him again after that. I only saw him the once. It was at Grady’s Creek. There were Maltese working on the line up there. There are a couple more Maltese yet that have done this thing to me. After he had done this to me I went to the pictures and he went across the river, I saw him. He was going over to his camp which was beside the other Maltese tents a good way away from where I live. That is the only time he did that to me. I can’t read the statement produced.

4

[Case] 575

It was the next day after what happened on the river bank that the Police saw me. I looked at a number of men in the lock up yard that was the next day after the Police saw me I saw the Sergeant and Constable Fleming in the Police yard. Sergeant Wren told me why I was taken there (witness here points to Sergeant McIntosh). I have been in the lock up since then. He told me he brought me there to tell about Maltese. That was all he said. He told me how many Maltese in the yard. He said a good crowd of Maltese are there. He told me that all the Maltese he could find were there. He told me that I had to pick out the man that interfered with me. I had not seen any of those who interfered with me more than once I thought I had to pick out a certain number from those men. I thought I had to pick out eight men. Eight Maltese interfered with me. I don’t know if all Maltese are like one another. I didn’t just make a guess at the men who did it to me. I picked out those who did. I made no mistakes. He never did it to me at the lavatory in the park.

    To Police: None of the Police told me what number of men to pick out nor did they tell me to pick out any particular ones. You first questioned me up near the bridge and near a camp. The next time I saw the Police was when Constable Fleming took a statement from me. I remember being brought into that yard at the lock up when the men were lined up. You said “Go and pick the men out that interfered with you.”

    Bench: He said “Go and show me the men that interfered with you.”

[Signed] William McMillan.

Taken and sworn at Casino, this 9th day of September 1930 before.
[Signed] EA Mahony, PM.

5

[Case] 575

    This Deponent, sworn, states. My name is John McMillan I am a labourer and reside at South Casino. William Rodney McMillan is my son. Previous to living at South Casino I was living on the north side. I removed the family from the north to the south side about the time of the Lismore Court of Quarter Sessions. My wife and daughters were over at the Sessions. About the 18th August would be the right date I know nothing concerning this case.

    No questions.

[Signed] John McMillan.

Taken and sworn at Casino, this 9th day of September 1930.
[Signed] EA Mahony, SPM.

    [Hand written note marked] X. Doctor’s evidence in Joe Galea’s case which was dismissed – allowed as evidence in case against Frank Galea.

6

566

    This Deponent, sworn, states, My name is William Alexander Standish. I am a duly qualified medical practitioner and Government Medical Officer. I reside at Casino.

    Yesterday I examined the boy William Rodney McMillan now before the Court. I examined his rectum and found the skin round the anus reddened from some irritation. I examined the anal opening and found it to be dilated admitting two fingers. His mental condition appears to be sub normal and the usual signs associated with these cases are partly evident such as sweating of the hands, dilation of the pupil. What I saw would be consistent with the crime of buggery being committed with him.

    To Mr Kissane: From my examination I am of opinion that the boy has been in the habit of doing this sort of thing. I could not form any opinion of the lapse of time that he had from the examination to the date he last did this thing.

    To Bench: I would say that he has very little ability to distinguish from moral right or wrong. I think he knows when he is committing a wrong action.

[Signed] WA Standish.

Taken and sworn at Casino, this 9th day of September 1930 before.
[Signed] EA Mahony, SPM.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

(F. 2.– “Justice’s Act, 1902.”)

Statement of the Accused.

State of New South Wales, Casino
TO WIT.                                           }

Frank Galea (hereinafter called the accused), stands charged before the undersigned, one of His Majesty’s Justices of the Peace in and for the said State, this ninth day of September, 1930, for that he, the accused, on or about the 30th day of August 1930, at Casino in the said State, did assault one William Rodney McMillan and then wickedly and against the order of nature carnally knew the said William Rodney McMillan and did commit with the said William Rodney McMillan the abominable crime of buggery and the said charge being read to the accused, and the witnesses for the prosecution, Willie Fleming of Casino, Police Constable, William Rodney McMillan and John McMillan (Evidence of Dr Standish in previous case accepted in this. This evidence is with the other depositions in this case.) Being severally examined in his presence, and ((the depositions of the said witnesses having been read to him), the accused is now addressed by me the said Justice as follows:– “Having heard the evidence, do you with to say anything in answer to the charge? You are not obliged to say anything unless you desire to do so, but whatever you say will be taken down in writing, and may be given against you in evidence at your trial; and you are also informed, and are to clearly understand, that you have nothing to hope from any promise of favour, and nothing to fear from any threat which may have been holden out to you to induce you to make any admission or confession of your guilt, but whatever you now say may be given in evidence against you upon your trial notwithstanding such promise or threat.” Whereupon the accused saith as follows:– “I reserve my defence.” [Signed] Frank (his X mark) Galea, witness RV Carroll.

Taken before the undersigned Justice and read over to the said defendant at Casino in the said State, the day and year first above mentioned.
[Signed] EA Mahony, PM.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

G. 190.

New South Wales,
TO WIT.                    }

REX.
versus
Frank Galea

Offence: Sodomy

    The accused stands committed to take his trial at the next Court of Circuit Court to be holden at Lismore, in the State of New South Wales, on the Twenty-fourth day of September 1930, or at such other Court to be holden at such place and time as the Attorney-General may appoint. Bail allowed the accused in £200 and two sureties in £100 each, or one in £200

[Signed] EA Mahony, SPM

JP.

Dated at Casino in the said State this 9th day of September 1930.
(May, 1930.) 21857

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

“Justice’s Act, 1902.”

Recognizance of Witnesses to give Evidence at Court of Quarter Sessions or Gaol Delivery.

State of New South Wales, Casino
TO WIT.                                           }

Be it remembered, that on the 9th day of September 1930 Willie Fleming of Casino, Police Constable William Rodney McMillan of Casino, John McMillan of Casino labourer, William Alexander Standish of Casino Medical Practitioner personally came before the undersigned, one of His Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the said State, and acknowledged themselves to owe our Sovereign Lord the King the sum of forty pounds each, of good and lawful money of Great Britain, to be made and levied of their goods and chattels, lands and tenements, to the use of our said Lord the King, his Heirs and Successors, if they the said before mentioned persons shall fail in the condition indorsed hereunder.

    The condition of the within written recognizance is such, that whereas Frank Galea (hereinafter called the defendant) was this day charged before Edward Augustus Mahony, Esquire one of His Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the said State, with sodomy.

If, therefore, they the before mentioned persons shall appear at the next Circuit Court to be holden at Lismore in and for the State of New South Wales, on Wednesday the 24th day of September 1930 at ten of the clock in the forenoon, or at such other Court, to be holden at such time and place as the Attorney General may appoint, of which such last mentioned Court each of them shall receive due notice, and then and there give such evidence as they know, upon an information to be then and there preferred against the said defendant for the offence aforesaid, to the jurors who shall pass upon the trial of the said defendant, then the said recognizance to be void, or else to stand in full force and virtue. [Signed] W Fleming, William McMillan, WA Standish, John McMillan.

Taken and acknowledged the day and year first above mentioned, at Casino in the said State, before me.
[Signed] CJM Hade, JP.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

[On the depositions’ cover sheet is the following]

Supreme Court.
Lismore
24th September 1930
AG’s No. -----
Depositions.
CS’s No. 5
Rex
v.
Frank Galea
Sodomy
Committed at: Casino
on: 9th September 1930

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Court. Supreme Court Lismore
Date. 26th September 1930
Coraki Road. Halse Rogers Judge.
Plea. Not guilty
Verdict. Guilty of attempt to commit buggery
Judgment. Three years penal servitude
EF McDonald
Crown Prosecutor
Note.– In event of postponement, it should be stated whether accused admitted to bail.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Buggery
[Initial illegible]
17.9

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Justice PH Rogers notebook  15

55

[Lismore Circuit Court] 26 September 1930
R v Frank Galea
McDonald CP
Collins for prisoner
Buggery
Interpreter sworn (Peter Fenech)
    William Rodney McMillan
    Willie Fleming PC
    Peter Fenech
    William Alexander Standish
Crown case
    Frank Galea
Case for Defence
12.41 pm Collins addresses
12.48 pm McDonald addresses
12.49 pm I sum up
12.52 pm Jury Retire
2.35 pm Jury Return
Verdict: Guilty of Attempt
Sentence: Three years penal servitude

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Barrier Miner, Sat 27 Sep 1930 16

FIVE MALTESE CONVICTED
OF A SERIOUS OFFENCE
———◦———
Jury Recommends
their Deportation
———

Lismore, Saturday.

    After convicting five Maltese of unnatural offences at Casino, the jury added a rider to their verdict that they should be deported.

    Mr Justice Halse Rogers said this question was outside his jurisdiction, but he had no doubt that the recommendation would receive the serious consideration of the authorities. One of the Maltese was sentenced to seven years’ imprisonment and the other four to three years. A sixth man was acquitted.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Casino and Kyogle Courier and North Coast Advertiser, Sat 27 Sep 1930 17

SEVEN YEARS’ GAOL
————
MALTESE DESPOILER SENTENCED.
————
CASINO’S REVOLTING CASES.
————

    The trial of the Maltese who were committed in the Police Court at Casino in connection with unnatural offences against youth of 20, 16 and one lad under 16 years of age came on yesterday at the sittings of the Lismore Supreme Court, before Mr Justice Halse Rogers.

    Frank Grech pleaded guilty to interference with the youngest lad. The evidence showed that he was caught in the act of committing an abominable offence. He was sentenced to seven years, with hard labour.

    Jack Xureb, Frank Galea, Jim Borg and Sam Zhra were brought in guilty and each sentenced to three years’ gaol.

    Frank Borg, charged with a similar offence to the others, was brought in not guilty and acquitted.

    The Casino police must be complimented for bringing to justice these men, who undoubtedly were a menace to the community.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Morning Bulletin, Sat 27 Sep 1930 18

UNNATURAL OFFENCES
———◦———
FOREIGN PERVERTS
———
HEAVY SENTENCES
———
JUDGE’S COMMENTS

Lismore, September 26.

    Six Maltese were before Mr Justice Halse Rogers and a jury in the Circuit Court to-day charged with having committed unnatural offences. One was sentenced to seven years, four others to three years and one was acquitted.

    The jury added a rider to the verdict that the accused found guilty should be deported.

    His Honor said deportation was outside his jurisdiction, but it would receive serious consideration by the authorities.

    He added that from comments in court it appeared that offences of a similar nature had been committed by a number of men in the Casino district, mostly Maltese, employed in railway construction gangs. Apart from the offences, it must also be considered that they were corrupting boys of the countryside.

    One Maltese, Jack Xuereb, asked if he had anything to say before sentence was passed, said that if sent to prison he would take the first opportunity of hanging himself in his cell.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

The Northern Star and Richmond and Tweed Rivers Advocate, Sat 27 Sep 1930 19

MALTESE CHARGED
————
DEPORTATION RECOMMENDED
———
TERMS OF IMPRISONMENT
———

    Six Maltese were before the Circuit Court in Lismore yesterday charged with serious offences. Mr Justice Halse Rogers presided. Mr EF McDonald (Crown Prosecutor) conducted the prosecution. Mr CM Collins (instructed by Mr JJ Kissane) appeared for the defendants.

    One jury added to its verdict a rider that the accused found guilty, and the others found guilty or who pleaded guilty, should be deported. “I think no words too strong to condemn the crime,” said his Honour. “Deportation is beyond my jurisdiction, but the recommendation will be noted by the authorities and if it is possible to take steps serious consideration will be given to your recommendation.”

CHARGE ON COUNTRY

At the conclusion of the hearings his Honour said that the sentences might not be carried out for the Government might think fit to deport the prisoners before the expiration of the sentences. The matter was outside his jurisdiction, but if the Government decided to deport the prisoners, he did not think it was essential that they should be a charge on the country for the whole of the terms, in one case seven years and in the others three years.

    His Honour also made strong comments on the revolting nature of the crimes and said that there was not only the offence to be considered but the corrupting of the boys of the countryside.

    It was stated in the Court that offences had been committed by persons engaged in the construction of railway lines in the Casino district to the border and mostly by Maltese. His Honour did not know whether the crime was a serious one in Malta, but did know that it was not seriously regarded in some Continental countries.

    Frank Grech pleaded guilty and was sentenced to seven years penal servitude.

    The following jury was empanelled to hear the charge against Jack Xuereb. DR Gilmore, OB Wilson, HE King, EC Hampton, JD McDonald, TW Gordon, AE Priddis, SG Barnes, GW Blanch, RJ Kirkland, GCC Kraus, and TG Gallagher, and found the accused guilty.

ACCUSED’S APPEAL

    Asked if he had anything to say before being sentenced the accused made an impassioned appeal to his Honour not to accept the word of a mentally deficient boy against his (Xuereb) word. Xuereb said if he were sent to gaol he would take the first opportunity of hanging himself in his cell.

    The accused was sentenced to three years’ penal servitude.

    The case against Sam Zahra was heard by the following jury: CE Whitney, CW Johnston, A Clarke, EA Arthur, FM Lee, R White, RJ Simes, AJ Bryce, WHA Jackson, TW Green, JC Miller, JA O’Flynn. The accused was found guilty and sentenced to three years’ penal servitude.

    There were two charges against Jim Borg and to one he pleaded guilty and the other was withdrawn. He was sentenced to three years’ penal servitude.

    The following jury heard the case against Frank Galea:– T Dickson, EJ Cook, A Foster, JA Leu, SJ Denning, H Larkin, SJ Bruggy, HJ Edwards, GW Blanch, HE King, HJ Keevers, SG Barnes. Peter Fenech was sworn as interpreter. The jury found the accused guilty of attempting an offence. Galea was sentenced to three years’ penal servitude.

    There were two charges against Jim Borg and to one he pleaded guilty and the other was withdrawn. He was sentenced to three year’s penal servitude.

    [sic–sentence repeated as per above] The following jury heard the case against Frank Galea:– T Dickson, EJ Cook, A Foster, JA Leu, SJ Denning, H Larkin, SJ Bruggy, HJ Edwards, GW Blanch, HE King, HJ Keevers, SG Barnes. Peter Fenech was sworn as interpreter. The jury found the accused guilty of attempting an offence. Galea was sentenced to three years’ penal servitude.

    The following jury heard two charges against Frank Borg: John Sullivan, A Taylor, CW Johnston, A Guthrie, JA Richardson, CE Whitney, JA O’Flynn, TW Green, JC Weller, AE Priddis, WA Walmsley, R White. The accused was found not guilty and discharged.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Townsville Daily Bulletin, Mon 29 Sep 1930 20

A REVOLTING CASE.
————

Lismore, September 26.

    Six Maltese were before Justice Halse Rogers, and a jury in the Circuit Court to-day, charged with unnatural offences. One was sentenced to seven years, four others to three years and one was acquitted.

    The jury added a rider to their verdict that the accused found guilty should be deported.

    His Honor said that deportation was outside his jurisdiction, but would receive serious consideration by the authorities. He added that from the comments in Court it appears that offences of a similar nature had been committed by a number of men in the Casino district, mostly Maltese, employed in railway construction gangs. Apart from the offences, it must also be considered that they were corrupting the boys of the countryside.

    One Maltese, Jack Xuereb, asked if he had anything to say before sentence was passed, said that if he was sent to prison, he would take the first chance of hanging himself in his cell.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Casino and Kyogle Courier and North Coast Advertiser, Wed 1 Oct 1930 21

MALTESE DESPOILERS.
————
RECOMMENDATION FOR DEPORTATION.
————
“Crimes Too Strong for Words.”
————

    As stated in last issue, when the sentences of seven years on one man and three years on four others were mentioned, six Maltese were before the Circuit Court in Lismore on Friday, charged with serious offences. Mr Justice Halse Rogers presided. Mr EF McDonald (Crown Prosecutor) conducted the prosecution. Mr CM Collins (instructed by Mr JJ Kissane, Casino) appeared for the defendant.

    One jury added to its verdict a rider that the accused found guilty, and the others found guilty or who pleaded guilty, should be deported. “I think no words too strong to condemn the crime,” said his Honor. “Deportation is beyond my jurisdiction, but the recommendation will be noted by the authorities and if it is possible to take steps serious consideration will be given to your recommendation.”

    At the conclusion of the hearings, his Honor said that the sentences might not be carried out for the Government might think fit to deport the prisoners before the expiration of the sentences. The matter was outside his jurisdiction, but if the Government decided to deport the prisoners, he did not think it was essential that they should be a charge on the country for the whole of the terms, in one case seven years and in the other three years.

    His Honor also made strong comments on the revolting nature of the crimes, and said that there was not only the offence to be considered, but the corrupting of the boys of the countryside.

    It was stated in the Court that offences had been committed by persons engaged in the construction of railway lines in the Casino district to the border, and mostly by Maltese. His Honor did not know whether the crime was a serious one in Malta, but did know that it was not seriously regarded in some Continental countries.

    Asked if he had anything to say before being sentenced, Jack Xureb made an impassioned appeal to his Honor not to accept the word of a mentally deficient boy against his (Xureb) word. Xureb said if he was sent to goal he would take the first opportunity of hanging himself in his cell.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~


Frank Galea, Gaol photo sheet 22

SRNSW: NRS2328, [14/3084], Maitland photographic description book, No. 2197, p. –.


Gaol Photo Sheet - 
Transcribed Details 

Name Frank Galea

No. 2197
Maitland

Date when Portrait was taken: 17-10-1930

 

Finger Print
Classification

Native Place Malta.

Year of Birth 6-4-1881

Arrived in State   Ship
                       }     Year

Trade or occupation

previous to conviction  } Laborer.

Religion R. C.

Education, degree of R & W.

Height, without shoes 5' ½"

Weight in lbs.     On committal 130
                     }     On discharge

Colour of hair Black to Grey.

Colour of eyes Brown.

Marks or special features

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Nos. of previous Portrait ... )

CONVICTIONS

St 7574 97939

Court.

Date

Offence.

Sentence

Name.

Gaol No.

Lismore CC

26

9

1930

Attempt to commit buggery

3 years. P.S

Frank Galea.

 M.land. 30/520

 


1     The Brisbane Courier, Mon 8 Sep 1930, p. 18.

2     The Richmond River Express, Tue 9 Sep 1930, p. 2. Spelling of names transcribed as found.

3     Casino and Kyogle Courier and North Coast Advertiser, Wed 10 Sep 1930, p. 2. Spelling of names transcribed as found.

4     The Richmond River Express, Wed 10 Sep 1930, p. 2. Spelling of names transcribed as found.

5     The Sydney Morning Herald, Thu 11 Sep 1930, p. 7. Spelling of names transcribed as found.

6     Barrier Miner, Fri 12 Sep 1930, p. 1.

7     Casino and Kyogle Courier and North Coast Advertiser, Sat 13 Sep 1930, p. 2.

8     Truth, (Syd, NSW), Sun 14 Sep 1930, p. 13. Emphasis in original and added. Names transcribed as found in the original text.

9     Casino and Kyogle Courier and North Coast Advertiser, Wed 17 Sep 1930, p. 2. Emphasis added.

10   The Richmond River Express, Wed 17 Sep 1930, p. 2.

11   The Sydney Morning Herald, Thu 18 Sep 1930, p. 10.

12   Truth, (Syd, NSW), Sun 21 Sep 1930, p. 20. Emphasis in original and added.

13   The Northern Star and Richmond and Tweed Rivers Advocate, Wed 24 Sep 1930, p. 8. Emphasis added. Spelling of names transcribed as found.

14   SRNSW: NRS880, [9/7332], Supreme Court, Papers and depositions, Lismore, 1930, No. 5. Emphasis added.

15   SRNSW: NRS5997, [3/2354], Judiciary, PH Rogers, J. Notebooks Criminal Circuit, 1928-45, p. 55. Emphasis added.

16   Barrier Miner, Sat 27 Sep 1930, p. 1.

17   Casino and Kyogle Courier and North Coast Advertiser, Sat 27 Sep 1930, p. 2. Emphasis added.

18   Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Qld), Sat 27 Sep 1930, p. 9.

19   The Northern Star and Richmond and Tweed Rivers Advocate, Sat 27 Sep 1930, p. 3. Emphasis added.

20   Townsville Daily Bulletin, Mon 29 Sep 1930, p. 11.

21   Casino and Kyogle Courier and North Coast Advertiser, Wed 1 Oct 1930, p. 4. Emphasis added.

22   SRNSW: NRS2328, [14/3084], Maitland photographic description book, No. 2197, p. –.